The Stages of TOK

Stage 1

You hold mostly unexamined and/or unconsciously-held opinions.

Stage 2

You begin to doubt, as your opinions are questioned and you have trouble defending them.

Stage 3

You take shelter in relativism: all opinions, you say, are equally valid. Everyone is right.

Stage 4

You have opinions again, but this time they are carefully examined and considered opinions. You are aware of the basis of these opinions—the grounds by which you justify your beliefs. You are aware, too, of opposing views, and the arguments in support of those opposing views. In short, you know and can explain why you believe what you believe, and why you do not believe something else instead. You are able to disagree with others in an intelligent, informed, and respectful way.


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Not all black and white; the most interesting bits are gray.