I think economics is not science. Science is predictable and can be explored with the wisdom of human beings. Although the economy can determine the development trend in the next few years according to the current society, it cannot calculate variables. It ’s like parents often tell me, “Plan ca n’t keep up with changes.” We can never know what will happen in the future, so we ca n’t know whether there will be another financial storm in the future. Compared with science, science is not likely to change because of many variables. As long as we go to calculate science, there are basically few mistakes. There may be calculation errors, but science will not change because of the world.
Category Archives: Human Sciences
Economics as a Human Science
The term social science is appointed to any subject that refers to human behavior.
“A fundamental difference between human sciences and natural sciences is in the interpretation of the word “science”. The human sciences might be classified as science because they use the scientific method to test the validity and reliability of hypotheses. However, unlike the natural sciences, the phenomena they try to explain might not possess hard and fast laws that admit no exceptions. They might therefore resort to statistical methods to establish their findings, producing knowledge that is less reliable in terms of issuing predictions.”
This is why many believe that they shouldn’t be considered a science. They are open to so many false positives, for example in physiology. Where we’ve seen many professionals tamper with results. This has been an issue because in the hard sciences someone publishes an article about their experiment they could test it in any part of the world. And is a physiologist publishes an article where we monitored the behavior of 5 teenagers for 3 years. It would almost be impossible that someone would try to recreate the same experiment so the community chooses to believe in the results. This opens the opportunity for false results in all of the human sciences.
So Is economics really scientific? Or do they just call themselves scientific to increase their credibility? I believe that within all of the social sciences economics is one is not the most scientific. I think that this is because it uses the scientific method to predict changes is the economy that can or will be proven eventually. But at the same time I feel they do use the term scientific to increase their credibility. To quote Mr.Gardner, at the beginning of the year he told us that if you gave the same problem to 5 different economist you would most likely get 5 different solutions to that same problem. So if there are many answers to the same problem, is that really Science?
Assumptions, data, and calculations
The Human Sciences gather information through various means, but almost all of them involve three factors: assumptions, data, and calculations.
Errors can occur in any of these.
- Assumptions can be wrong.
- Data can be wrong, or incomplete. It can also include too many variables, making it very difficult to reach any firm conclusions.
- Calculations can be incorrect. Simple arithmetical errors are rare in the computer age, but the choice of a particular formula (another kind of assumption) may lead to misleading results.
At one extreme, people may simply accept reports about social science research without questioning them.
At another extreme, people who become aware of the possible problems with social science research may decide not to believe any of it.
The wise middle position is to view the results of social science research critically and skeptically, but not to reject social science altogether.
The same wise middle position applies to all the other AOKs as well.
Mercator’s model of the world, and what we can learn from it
This BBC program—”Gerard Mercator: The man who revolutionised mapmaking“—is highly relevant to an issue that arises in many of the “Human Sciences”: the use of models to depict reality. Mercator’s map is a wonderful tool for navigators traveling by ship, because the parallel lines of latitude allow for accurate calculations of the best way to sail from Point A to Point B.
However, as an image of the world it is highly distorted, and illustrates the prejudices of Europeans. Europe appears to be much larger than it actually is, and is placed right in the centre of the map. Africa appears much smaller than it actually is. China is way off toward the edge. Greenland appears enormous. And so on.
These distortions would not be important if there had been other maps, equally popular and widely used, that put Africa or China or South America, say, at the centre, instead of Europe. But in fact Mercator’s image still dominates the view of the world in the West and because of this dominance, it has become, in effect, a tool of European colonialism.
In this sense, the story of Mercator’s map illustrates how important models can be in determining our view of reality, and perhaps distorting our view of reality. Conclusion? Regard all models critically! Analyze their assumptions, their omissions, the point of view they promote, etc.
In economics, for example, “gross national product” (GNP) is widely used as a measure of the economy. But what is included, and what is excluded, in the GNP? Why? Such questions can lead to a much deeper understanding than we can have if we simply accept the models presented to us.
For a more detailed discussion of Mercator’s map, try this blog post, “Your World Map is Hiding Something,” on the excellent Metrocosm web site created by Max Galka, who teaches “data wrangling and data visualization” at the University of Pennsylvania.
“I’m a social scientist”
Peter Navarro, an advisor to President Trump, made the news today by shouting at Dr. Anthony Fauci, the leading American expert on infectious diseases, about a drug that Trump thinks (without any scientific evidence) should be used to treat COVID-19.
Navarro is described on his Wikipedia page as a retired “professor of economics and public policy. . . . Navarro’s views on trade are significantly outside the mainstream of economic thought, and are widely considered fringe and misguided by other economists.”
Very few social scientists, of course, would join Navarro in claiming they should advise Dr. Fauci on the best way to treat COVID-19.
Economics is a study of human economic activity. In Economics the fake hypothesis or data will not be approved, because the market will not lie, for example, if I forge the demand of a product, at the end of the year, the accounts will show the sales. If I doctored the accounts.there are many ways to find out.
Human science is a subject that takes people as the direct research object, we can study human behavior by underlying motivations, cognitive factors, and emotional factors. The difficult part of studying human behavior is to design experiments. But we have some successful experiment, I reckon Jane Elliott’s Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes Exercise is a good example. Human science is scientific if we get the correct data.
Human Geography – Will R
Geography is focused mainly on human migration, causes of migration and why some locations have larger populations than others. In Geography, it is usually hard to formulate false evidence unless you control the experiment. In any experiment in Geography, you need to have proof of whatever it is that you are doing research on. Most content in Human Geography is factual, like statistics on quality of life , or human rights around the world. However, people can formulate false results in Human Geography. If someone wrote a paper about water quality in a third-world country, and made a statement saying that no one in that country has access to quality water, but said it without doing actual research, people could start to believe that the statement is true, because they trust the person who wrote the article. If another scientist or person in a high position looked into the paper and proved that statement wrong, then the person who wrote the paper could have their career destroyed. To minimize this problem, people writing papers on Human Geography should always do proper research into what they are writing about, and have multiple colleagues fact check their paper.
I do believe that Human Geography is really scientific, because everything we learn about in Geography, like statistics, is proven facts and has been researched and studied by scientists and by organizations like the UN. I do think that some Human Sciences call themselves scientific to increase their credibility, but I do not believe that Geography is one of them.
The human science that I am studying is Economics. In economics, false positives could be present if someone came up with some numbers that weren’t backed up by evidence or they calm up with some numbers to make themselves look better in the world of economics. This could be bad for the world because if someone had to make a difficult decision. For example, choosing whether or not to create subsidies for a certain industry, the false information could really hurt the economy of that country. Sometimes it can be really difficult to spot and call out false positives especially if the data was accumulated over multiple years as this would be hard to re-create. This could affect whole countries at a time as people would stop believing the economic information and how the country is standing in the economic world.
Human science economics
Economics is a subject that studying on how does the human have their economic activities and usually that is how the value be create, convert and using in real life. This subject refers to a lot of writing and creating in China we call this literal subject The problems that shows in the article was also happed a lot in economics, people always using plagiarism in writing and creating because this is a very hard part for most of the people so they try to done these work in an easy way especially when people trying to create something brand new. Guttenberg’s “audacious plagiarism” was stumbled upon during a routine inspection by Andrew Fischer Rescano, a law professor at the university of Bremen in Germany. This student was struggling about how to write a economic article. Economics articles always analyze human behavior and make some prediction so that it could make future activities easier. Economics is similar to other social science subject on writing and creating part.
My point of view， science is taking any object under study which means keep researching and developing. Infinite magnification and minification, the process of infinite magnification and minification and find nearly 100% of the perfect theory is how the science work. Basically scientific have a bunch of rules during studying and researching for example in physics and math there are authentic turth however in economics there are a lot of uncertainty for example in stock market there are many unknown problem which could affect the stock market a lot, so in this way economics is not scientific but a human science subject. And it is not for credibility to call them scientific because in the normal time economics have credit a lot especially when some famous economics professor post their prediction about future economics activities for a specific country.
Within the topic of human sciences lies human geography, the study of people and how we connect with each other and our interactions with the environment. It has been heavily debated whether human sciences are reliable due to their content being misconstrued. However, human geography has been noted as more reliable do to its content. For example, in human geography, we typically see more factual points about how our communities work with the environment rather than other human sciences such as economics which looks at virtual numbers. You may find in a human geography class to be talking about how human life has developed and how life expectancy has increased in multiple HIC’s or High Income Countries. Whereas physical geography typically runs in the path of how the 4 spheres that make up our earth flow together seamlessly. Geography as a whole is seemingly more reliable because the facts are living around us and wee can experience them ourselves, making it seem more reliable. But how do you know if a source is reliable?
Human Sciences: Reliable? -Kelvin M.
Many doubt the ‘scientific reliability’ of the human sciences, as they differ drastically to the natural sciences where a proof for hypotheses is often in the form of exact data and evidence, social sciences often extract only data from a relative group of people to the entire population. They thus can only use models and graphs to represent the situation. This method causes a lot of problems.
One example of this is the recent events of the COVID-19 Coronavirus, which heavily involves the study of social geography, human migration, general health, etc. Many nations, except for China, being ground zeros of the outbreak, had a low initial number of confirmed infections, but over time, as the situation escalates, suddenly sees a significant rise in the number of infections. From this process, we can see the flaws of the methods of the human sciences. Due to the practice of social sciences not being able to test infections on the entire population, a large group of infected is not tested on and therefore ignored by the initial numbers. But as the death count rises, a gap is formed between the infected and the dead. The errors start to be recognized.
This is why currently, both Italy and Korea have relatively higher death rates than China, as China has tested for the virus on a much more significant percentage of the population to gain relatively accurate numbers. In contrast, Italy and Korea have counted deaths but ignores a large amount of hidden infected. America, just yesterday, had seen a rise in infection count and, with over 100 thousand infected, is now the country most severely affected by the Coronavirus. This situation is due to the officials recognizing the importance of gaining accurate data, and conducted tests for infection on a large percentage of the population, finding those that were infected but not confirmed before and listing them on the data, thus the sudden rise in numbers.
From this very recent example, I believe that is can once again be seen how the methods behind human sciences can be quite skeptical at times. However, these errors cannot disprove the importance of these studies to human beings. Business and economics are relevant to all our lives as long as we actively act as consumers to cooperations, and Geography has proven to be important situations such as recently. Like humans ourselves, it is flawed but of importance.
Human Sciences Business Management
I think that the issue of false positives is something that occurs within business management . I think that this problem can mainly occur when a company is trying to advertise and or promote their products and they end up making there advertised products seem much better than the products they are actually making and selling. This is something that often occurs in food commercials and advertisements. They make the food seem so delicious that you think “I want to buy that” or “I want to go to that restaurant”. The problem with this is they spend a lot of time to make these advertisements with stuff that is sometimes not even edible and then when you get the food not is not as good as they made it sound or as what you were expecting.
I think that depending on the situation and the different parts of business management there are certain cases where it can be considered scientific and there are certain times where it is not scientific. I think that many of the different strategies in business are developed from research which makes me consider them to me more scientific. An example of this is different styles of leadership that someone may use when trying to manage a business, in class we have learned about how it has been shown that different leadership styles will have different effects on the people within the business. In these situations where the leadership styles are being tested on people and analyzed, I consider this to be a more scientific part of business management. An example of a part of business management that I don’t consider to be scientific is all of the more mathematical components. This includes balance sheets, finances, and income statements. Because these things involve different math skills and calculations I do not consider this to be a scientific part of the business. I also think that there are some areas of business management that can be more unclear or a mix of both scientific and non scientific parts. An example of this is when companies are trying to figure out the best ways to advertise and promote their products to make customers interested in buying them. This is scientific in they way that they will research and study different strategies that they could possibly use and the amounts of customers these can attract. The non scientific part of this is when they focus on how their advertising and promoting products effects the customers, example of this is when people see a cute dog in a commercial for something it gets their attention so they will hear about the products. The combination of these two parts is what can help the company to sell their products in the most effective way.
Human Science-Business management
As we know, the human sciences study the social, cultural and biological aspects of human existence. And business management shares many skills and areas of knowledge with humanities and social sciences, which includes decision-making, risk-taking, profit-making and operating in a competitive environment.
First of all, we can see that Brown realizes that the equation published by Fredrickson and Losada doesn’t contain any data and only works on its own terms in the article of “The British amateur who debunked the mathematics of happiness”, which means this whole theory is completely self-referential. The same applies to business management. Like all the ways expressed in the business cannot satisfy all the employees’ standard or needs. For example, some employee may like a leader with democratic leadership because they think this way involves subordinates in decision-making process, but others think that this style of leadership will make decision-making become so long, which is not good for working efficiency. So what we can see from this is that maybe a leader thinks that the democratic style of leadership that he or she adopts is useful for the employees and whole company, but not every employee thinks it’s feasible, which means the democratic leadership is not the greatest style because it is not for everyone. For minimizing such problem, as long as the employees adapt to the situation as much as possible, a leader also can try his best to combine a variety of different leadership styles, so as to meet the needs of each employee and make them work better.
For the second article False positive, fraud becomes the most important title. In the field of business management, this kind of negative behavior inside and outside the company is also very common. For example, a company can falsify its financial statements to show good financial results. These documents can be used as a basis for obtaining bank loans or selling shares to investors. Such fraud can be entirely internal to the accounting department or imposed by management. In order to minimize such problem, a strong system of internal controls helps companies deter employees from committing fraud. Like they can educate the management of fraud and initiate annual examinations of financial statements by an outside party.
In my opinion, as to whether business management is scientific or not, it should depend on different angles. In the business, there are many concepts and methods that are well defined and proven. Like we have confirmed the condition of some specified leadership style, which means this field is scientific. However, we can also say that business management is not scientific. The two words business and management can be viewed separately. When we pay attention to the details of management, we will find that in fact, in the whole business management, there is more of a form of communication between people. Everyone thinks differently, and that makes it impossible to have an absolute standard, so a lot of time it’s people’s subjective intentions and this kind of emotional communication that drives the management.
Human sciences – Social Geography
When facts and information are being made for social geography things can be tricky but it is very important to have the right information and have a correct result. False positives and false negatives are something that can be brutal for the community, taking for an example the situation that is happening right now, the COVID-19 pandemic around the world, false information is circulating and is making people very paranoid and is causing a universal chaos just because some information that is going around is fake or not well explained. Because of this false information people are making panic shopping and are taking too much medicines and supplies that can be more useful for someone that is already sick.
When true information is released people get better informed and can act correctly about the situation, things do not get out of the normal order as it should be. Scientists should be 100% sure that what they are releasing to the world is true for the wellbeing and understanding of all the community.
I believe that Geography is indeed a science because it proves facts and it studies the way humans and everything works and act.
Human sciences- Andrea
Economics is the science that studies resources, wealth creation, and the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, in order to meet human needs. It is a human science because their laws are empirical, this means that in order to proove each graph or data given in economic articles, it requires to have someone analyze it and also the fact that economic laws are empirical menas that they are based on experience and observarion just as any other science. Furthermore, it oversees analyzing, describing and interpreting the behavior of human beings in the economic environment.
Economics as a social and human science, is based on the study of human behavior before the relationship that exists between ends and scarce means. The main goal of studying economics is to study the correct distribution of scarce resources to satisfy the needs of the human being. In other words, it analyzes the relationship between the available resources, which are limited in nature, and the needs, which are unlimited, although hierarchical.
Some of the problems that studying economics can face are that the crises that suffer the strongest complications in the world affect all others, and all others are affected by society in all its forms: taxes, interest rates, salary developments, credits, etc. The less fiscal crisis in the stronger strategies, the more stability not only economic, but also social. So if there is a mistake in economic data or graphs it doesn’t only affect the economy of one country, but it can affect the economy of other countries that have borders or economic trades with the country that is giving wrong data or information. Therefore, in order to solve this problem, people need to be truthful and check for mistakes in the data and information that they are putting in articles.In my opinion economics is indeed a human science and it is scientific because all sciences are based on prove and theory and economics is also based on graphs and given data.
Human science is a study of the reality of being human, including social sciences. Geography studies the science of the earth´s surface, while geography as a human science refers to the study of its peoples and human behavior. However, human geography is focus on the behavior of people and how they relate to the physical world. Many areas of geography are interconnected each other, for example. Human CO2 emissions, like burning coal and other fossil fuels, but also cement production, deforestation and other landscape changes affects the climate that forms part of both physical and human geography because it gets an impact in humans. Geographic information supports much of what we do today on the Internet, where there are many people who manipulate information to benefit themselves, regardless of its outcome and without using data with a certain degree of credibility. For example, rivers are very important natural waterways that are also used for agriculture and livestock. Like floods, posting wrong information about flood data can cause many conflicts and inconsistencies. For example, saying that thanks to the flood, a lot of animals have been lost and the sale of food of animal origin has been reduced, without information to support that this information is correct. However, any article that is published without information verifying that information can result in a conflict.
In my opinion, human science considered geography as a science because it also studies human behavior with physical geography and how they interact with each other. We researched to find something we don’t know related to it, and I think it’s a scientific study because of that.
As Carl Jung said, “We need more understanding of human nature, because the only real danger that exists is man himself.” That applies to all human sciences, but I’m going to talk about economics. In this science specifically, since it involves money and human beings, most people employ any type of strategy to obtain the greatest benefit even at the expense of others. Therefore, the veracity of the data is never known, since being a human science it may be driven by corruption or various deceits.
So when it comes to economics, people are forced to inform themselves from sources with very high truthfulness. It stands to reason, when it comes to money and the well-being of their own, people forget all the ethical codes and focus exclusively on their own benefit.
Also when it comes to economics, it is not as easy as it seems to discover if someone takes advantage of the wealth or if there is a manipulation and in this science, being so extensive, it is very difficult to show the credibility of the data. It is true that every economist must gather foundations on which to support his data and conclusions in case he is ever accused of fraud or providing false information, so as not to lose his credibility.
From my point of view, the economy is scientific since it studies the way to manage the available resources to satisfy human needs. In addition, it also studies the behavior and actions of human beings.Therefore it is not only necessary to study the concepts and the economy itself, it is also necessary to study those who run our economy. Since you never know when we are facing a fraud or corruption case.
Human Science – Anh Tai Trang
In economics, there are tons of information and everyday data to consider. The final figures are not allowed to have any false information in order to keep the economic cycle in balance. There will not be any data that can be 100% certain to determine where the economy is located. But, we can make estimates based on numbers every day. Economics cannot be determined because it can go up or down at any time. Economists tend to analyze why the economy is up or down and can rely on what they see to be able to predict what will happen. In order to ensure the information was completely accurate so that economists could guess, strict laws were put in place. People are greedy and they will want more of what they possess. Therefore, corruption or bribery happen in the economy a lot. But if we rely on the economic system, we can find out that it does not fit.
Is economics science? There will be those who agree and disagree that economics is science. There is nothing wrong with that because it is the opinion of every person. But for me, I think economics is science because it relies on the facts and information of the economy to calculate as logically as possible in order to develop the economy of a country in general and the whole world. in particular.
Human science refers to synthetic science that tried to solve the problem using human brains and human behaviour. geography is a study of the relationship between people and the natural environment and geography can be divided into four different types and the key concept of this subject is an interaction between humans and the environment. There are human geography, social geography, social geography and physical geography. physical geography is known as actual geography mountains and rivers, for example. The tallest mountain on earth is Mount Everest because there is evidence of it, therefore the scientific method is usually used in physical geography in order to determine whether it’s true or false. However, human science applies to the other three types. These are quite different studies then physical geography, which is the study of people, environment, economies and cultures in space. Human science needs survey and quantitative data and makes it generalize. I’ll take a river as an example, you definitely think rivers are classified as physical geography. Most rivers can be made naturally, and the rivers grow and change shape over time, at the same time, rivers have both negative and positive impacts on humans. Rivers can be used for transport and farming. Rivers carry water, so it is a route for travel and transport resources. On the other hand, there are few disadvantages of rivers in the environment such as flooding and erosion. Humans have developed a brain that is to analyze a problem deeply, so that we believe that our environment is becoming better. So to get back on track, rivers, humans tried our best to prevent flooding such as to create levees and dams, plant trees and make wider floodplains. Levees are usually able to prevent flooding when the condition is good enough, but as you know these are established by our hands which means it wouldn’t be perfect and an error occurred in many places. Poor countries can’t afford to build it but wealthy countries are able to increase the height of levees and eventually, this big disparity causes worse implications. Another example is the Sea Of Japan. It is the name of the sea between Japan, Korea and Russia, so that this area cannot be part of any country. And the Japanese call this area “Sea Of Japan” while South Korea is named “East Sea” and North Korea supports the name “Korean East Sea”. These countries have arguments to support their archipelago. This may be a rebellion depending on which name you use when broadcasting this sea on TV. In Conclusion, human science applies to geography in many ways.
Business Management is a study that learn how to start up the business and how to manage the company. We learn base on business functions which are marketing, finance, human resource, operation.
In my opinion, human resource will apply to the articles. When the managers think about human resource, they use the resources which have done and there are a lot of resources which tell how to have a efficient relationship in the company. For example, we learned that mass production will demotivate the employees due to the easy task and low salary. This is just a hypothesis and it does not mean that the workers for mass production does not a high motivation. Some worker might have a high motivation because the job make he or she confident due to the easy task. Or the job is a job that she finally got and she might be so happy to have a job. I think emotion does not have an absolute answer and even though there are many resources, it does not mean it will apply to everyone because each person has different background and personality.
In addition, company could tell false positive. For example, company exaggerate on the advertising to impress the customers and made them to buy the products or use the services. When you see the advertisement for Mc.Donald’s, you will see a high quality hamburger with low price. However, when you actually buy the hamburger, the quality is not that high as you see on the advertisement. One more example is that company could only tell the positive things of their products or services. Common point of the example is that companies do something to attract the customers, but they do not lie.
Business management is not scientific. Because business and management is always connected to emotion, even though there are trend or tendency, it will not have the exact same data or result for each resources. Also, it is hard to represent the resources by using number for business and management.
Social sciences are described by the understanding of how people interact and function with one another. Business Management oversees the whole action of administering a group of people to reach maximum productivity, therefore making a corporation thrive. Forging facts in this specific area is very simple but also very easy to detect. Statistics for example. For example, certain CEO could say that his company is environmentally friendly. He could state that all the waste created in his factories is recycled. If for a specific reason someone would not believe this, this individual could ask workers in the company or look up information to make see if everything is being recycled. An example of a company that lied in its CSR (corporate social responsibility) is Coca-Cola. When they announced their new product, Coca-Cola Life, it was described as a much healthier option than the regular version of it. Many people conducted research and proved that it was even worse… The only way to reduce all of this fabrication of facts is by just trying to figure out each case going one by one. Each corporation should be investigated one by one in the search for these false statements. It is a slow process, but easy to detect forgery.
I believe that Business Management is a science in every way. There are a lot of ways that people have discovered and proved right in which you can make teamwork more efficient. A lot of research has been done about how to create a friendly working environment or how to create an efficient one. This is based on how humans interact with each other. For example, a dictatorial style is based on supremacy. A leader will command and the team will obey, this style is not particularly cheerful towards employees, but it has been seen to be the most efficient. On the other side, a democratic style is more likely to keep employees happy at the cost of slow decision making. Essentially, Business management is a study that includes people administration based on a goal.
Human Sciences – Eloise
Geography studies a lot about human movement, reasons for migrations and population densities. In general, unless you have full control over all evidence, It would be hard to make up results. For example, if a scientist wanted to claim that humans migrated from Canada to Mexico because they didn’t have enough water, they would have to have evidence to prove that. Considering Canada has more fresh water than any other country, that would be hard to prove. If you then provided false data, other researchers could easily do their own study to prove the study is false, which is what Nick Bunk did when he though the 3:1 ratio of positive thoughts was incorrect. The only way to really do this is to have full ownership of what you were studying and you could deny access to what you were studying. Hypothetically in this scenario the government might be able to accomplish that. In regards to population density, I think these results could be manipulated more easily because it is hard to keep track of people as they move around. A lot of population counts are done by legal count but also the occasional survey, and it would be very hard to be accurate. However the results could be published however they want depending what they want people to think and not many people will conduct that research to prove if it is correct or false.
I think human science geography is a science. I believe this because you could do experiments on humans to record results however in some cases (where it could harm humans) is frowned upon, it is still going on world wide. With the right amount of power you could also add variables to assist or harm the population, for example with the Covid-19 outbreak the governments are putting in place resources to assist the population because they have recorded data from past outbreaks around the world and figured out what they needed to do to have least resistance from the public. Research is always happening whether we are aware of it or not and we don’t know what they might use it for but it is happening and it is a scientific study.
Human sciences-Isaac Carmelo
In economics, it is very easy to get away with making up data as all economists know that people are not always truthful when it comes to money and their businesses. As half a trillion dollars of illegal drug money worldwide, there is a lot many people who will claim that as an income source. Economists can say that they were given that data and due to all the grey space within wealth and trade, their credibility can not be proved wrong as easily. As it is relatively easy to repeat a process, there are always ways that the economist can show how the data they collected would be different from the one that others collected (people being honest and just, time and year the data was collected, and the shift in businesses becoming legal (narcotics)). What economists can do is to provide hard evidence of each the data that they collected that they can hold themselves accountable for and so if they get accused of false information, they can show their data and if its all true, their credibility will go up and if not, they will have a bad reputation.
In my opinion, economics is scientific. Even tho different aspects about it that are not, they use different scientific devices and graphs to calculate data that is used worldwide and praised for. I don’t think that economics calls itself scientific just for credibility because it studies the actions and outcomes of humans and is helpful for optimizing trade and interactions between individual humans and societies.
Emotion – Anh Tai Trang
Emotions are expressed through thoughts (in each person) and actions (expressed). People have a lot of different emotions and 6 primary emotions are happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust. These 6 emotions are usually expressed outward but sometimes they may not be expressed. There are many theories that explain what emotions mean but put them all in the main sense that emotions can affect the actions and thoughts of every person. Sadness often leads to depression and this can be manifested in a dramatic way, such as falling face down. And these emotions can be considered as a knowledge and be divided into 3 parts: Perception, Reason, Language. Two of these three parts (Perception and Reason) are often hidden inside each person’s thoughts and Language is an outward representation. Language will help identify other people’s emotions in sound. If the voice becomes lower and lower, the person is probably sad. On the contrary, if the voice is softer then the person is probably happy.
“Since emotions are an integral part of our mental lives, they are likely to influence the way we see and think about the world.”
People often ask that listening to the heart or reason. It is often said that emotions will make people blind and reason will make people cool. Therefore, to be able to decide the most accurate way, first to balance both and this is not easy. People are often easily influenced by everything around them. So, for people to learn to balance needs a lot of time for them to go through and learn it.
“Our emotions can not only distort our beliefs, but also lead us to make poor decisions. Some emotions are urgent and short sighted and they can easily blind us to the longer-term consequences of our actions.
With intuition problem. Each person has their own intuition and this greatly affects the decisions and thoughts of each person. If your mind helps you make more informed decisions and your heart gives you insight, intuition is at the core of both. But intuition is not always true because you cannot rely on any argument. But intuition can also rely on some knowledge already available to be able to make decisions.
Are there universal moral values? – Anh Tai Trang
There are universal moral values. These values are expressed by the agreement of the majority of people living and working there. They live together, build an empire and create laws that everyone agrees and obeys. Therefore, if you violate the regulations, it will be considered as wrong and will be punished according to the level of wrong. Correctness or wrongness are given by each person’s own ideas (so mistakes can occur) but rules are set out to indicate wrong and right. In addition, people are easily affected if the people around them agree on one thing, and they will also choose to follow the majority. “Fact” is not really a word applied to morality because morality cannot be seen or heard but “fact” does. “Fact” is a word to indicate a fact or information that is completely accurate and almost unchangeable but morality can be changed.
In fact, ethics cannot be determined by math or science. But math and science can judge and explain a certain part of morality. Murder is right or wrong, it is only in one’s own opinion. The killer might have given the killer a right and he should have done it, but those around him looked at it as wrong. Therefore, to be able to distinguish right from wrong is in each person’s own opinion. As mentioned before, rules are made up of many different ideas but are formed from the majority. Rules are created to prevent people from doing things that others consider wrong. Most of all, the laws were created to protect each individual there. So, if one is killed, it is affecting an individual and it also means breaking the law leading others to think that killing is wrong.
TOK Plato’s ‘Meno’ Part 5 – Anh Tai Trang
Part 5 summarizes the entire Plato’s ‘Meno’ reading. The main point of this reading is that Socrates found a way to convince others by asking them different questions but in the end came back to the main topic and the people who were asked were completely convinced.
” Then the result of our reasoning, Meno, is found to be that virtue comes to us by a divine dispensation, when it does come. But the certainty of this we shall only know when, before asking in what way virtue comes to mankind, we set about inquiring what virtue is, in and by itself. It is time now for me to go my way, but do you persuade our friend Anytus of that whereof you are now yourself persuaded, so as to put him in a gentler mood; for if you can persuade him, you will do a good turn to the people of Athens also “. [page 47].
TOK Plato’s ‘Meno’ Part 2 – Anh Tai Trang
After reading part 2, the topic for Meno and Socrates’s argument was changed and the questions were raised again between the characters and when Socrates posed too many questions for Meno but it did not satisfy what Meno is interested in. Later, another character appeared with the character name “Boy” and they continued the conversation. “Tell me, boy, do you know that a square figure is like this?” ( Plato’s ‘Meno’ pg.17 ) Socrates asked the “Boy” about geometry questions. He ( boy ) did not understand at first, but later he understood and it proves that you know more than you think.