Category Archives: Ethics

Key Terms in Ethics

I think we should not only look at the result, such as right and wrong, all right and wrong are based on what one thinks “morality”, and also look at the cause of things.
All things belong to its reason, like a thief broke into the home, was injured by the master of the home, so I think the person who injured others is not wrong, because the thief should not break into the home.

Key Terms in Ethics Steven

I like the Consequentialism theory most because this theory is talking about a true thing that many agreed. In our daily life when you are doing something for example the math assignment and one question probably have many different ways to solve it and whatever the way is, it doesn’t matter the consequence is right.

Theories of Ethics: Nihilism -Kelvin M.

My preference in both philosophy and ethical theory is Nihilism; in philosophy, more optimistic nihilist. In Ethics and Morals, Nihilism is the theory that there is no morality, or rightfulness and wrongness, in anything. This theory of ethics deriving from the philosophical nihilist theory: there is no meaning in life. Though this theory of ethics may simply sound like anarchy, it is more than that. To me, Nihilism is a sense of controlled chaos, since there is no true ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ towards things, I would always choose the action most beneficial to myself without harm towards others. Compared to other things as Altruism and the Golden Rule, I believe Nihilism is a much more practical theory of ethics, as there is one cruel fact of humanity: that is that all of us are selfish.

Golden Rule

The Golden Rule is about treating others like yourself, and I think that’s right. Because only with mutual respect can mutual understanding make the top better. Only when you respect others will others respect you. There is an old saying in China: Don’t do anything to others. The meaning of this sentence is that I hate it, so don’t give it to other people, unless that person likes it. The Golden Rule is about treating others like yourself, and I think that’s right. Because only with mutual respect can mutual understanding make the top better. Only when you respect others will others respect you. There is an old saying in China: Do to others as you would like have them do to you. The meaning of this sentence is that I hate it, so don’t give it to other people, unless that person likes it.

key terms in ethics- Andrea Ita

The key term in ethics that i found the most accurate and that i decided to write about is morality, because, i personally think that ethics is related to the study of the moral values that guide human behavior in society, while morality is more based in the customs, norms and thouchts stablished by each society or each indicidual.

Ethics is about reason and depends on philosofy and morality instead focuses more on the behavior in which our life consists of.

Golden Rule

“The Golden Rule of ethics is that you should treat other people as you wish to be treated yourself.” I find this rule something we all need to do and to look up to, since I have been little my mom always told me that I should treat people like I want them to treat me so I think it is true and really helpful, of course you don’t want people treating you badly, so treat them with respect  as you wish you were treated.

Right and wrong

For me, if that things is that me happy, feeling better, more lucky, it will be a good thing, same, if I feel sad, angry, feeling goes down, it was a bad things for me. Right and wrong is depends for person, family, school, country, etc. For example, when I was in Taiwan, my school had one rule: “Can’t order the food or eat unhealthy foods.”, But in Brookes, what I want to eat, what time I want to order the foods, teacher will not said anything. In my before school, order the foods is wrong, but in here is ok, is correct.

Key terms in ethics

After reading all the key terms in ethics, the one I relate to the most is consequentialism. I like it because it talks about how one’s decision changes based on the situation. What I mean by this is for example, if I see someone almost getting run over by a car, and I jump in to save them, but break one of their ribs in the process, it is for the best as I was able to save a life. Because a life was saved, my actions which bring harm, are acceptable. In this case, I would have made my decision based on what the outcome would be. My actions would be judged by the outcome.


Altruism is a belief to act for other people, not for own benefit. In my opinion, altruism will help in many situation. For example, when the earthquake occur and we know tsunami is coming we need to evacuate as soon as possible; however if there is an old woman, altruism will help her even though the person has a risk that he or she might lost her life by being left behind. On the other hand, both of them can evacuate. In this world, there are a lot os situation that we need to help us each other.

Golden Rule of Ethics

The Golden Rule of ethics is the principle that you should treat people the way you want to be treated in return which is similar to the law of reciprocity. I like this theory the best because it is a well supported theory and it is used in societies all around the world. In our society in Canada we use it in everyday situations such as holding the door open for others, which to the people who were born and raised here, seems like common courtesy, it is also an act of reciprocity. When we hold the door open for someone, we hope that they will treat us with the same level of respect, even if that means just saying thank you with a smile. We can also find it in a chain reaction type of situation. For example, if someone in the drivethru pays for the order behind them, they are doing that to make others happy in hopes that another time when they go through the drivethru, someone will do the same for them. Commonly, if one person pays for the order behind them, that person will pay for those behind them and the chain will continue. We have been using the golden rule, unknowingly since we were children which is most likely why most Canadians are deemed as polite and kind.


This theory tells us that altruism is the act of helping someone in a way that does not warrant any reward for helping them, or anything in return. For me, altruism is my favourite theory, because I think that people should always help other people and not expect a reward or to be recognized, just because it is the right thing to do.

Golden Rule

The golden rule is definitely one of the rules I use every day. It isn’t a great rule because maybe you don’t care how people treat you or about being respected so you don’t feel that going by this rule you have to be nice. Personally, I like when people smile and say hi and respect me and my decisions. However, after I get to know people, the reverse of this rule comes into play, if they do not respect me then that’s the energy I radiate back. If they decide to glare at me then I will glare back. Its definitely a downside to the rule because other people probably don’t use the rule and think you are just a rude person not that you are mirroring their behaviour.

Key Terms in Ethics

The theory that I like the best is Altruism. I like this theory the best because it is the act of helping someone or something without expecting anything in return. I feel  like I am happy when I am able to do something that will make others happy without feeling like I should be getting something for doing it. Whenever I make decisions I like to think about what will make others happy because I know that if I have made someone else happy I will be happy which is why Altruism is my favourite theory.

Altruism theory

Altruism is the behavior of helping others, not for you. This is similar to consequentialism and not looking at action but looking at what you have done. Even the action you did and you will be arrested, and do well-being things to others such as friends, family, babies or elders. I grasped this theory like this and this action might not be following the law but eventually be positive consequences. The definition of altruism said, “It is possible to argue that altruism does not exist, because aeven when we do not expect to be repaid, we still experience a positive feeling of having carried out a ‘good deed’, so it can be argued that we acted in self-interest, rather than the interests of someone else.” However, I think a person who believes this theory just wants to do well-being behavior for others.

Ethics – Anh Tai Trang

Good or bad, right or wrong cannot be answered fairly because this question is depended on each other point of view. They may grow in a different area with a different lifestyle and culture. Right or wrong, good or bad is from what they believe in. For example, if their parents tell them that helping other people is good and it is the right thing to do. They may ask themselves the question of why. However, the effect of parents is huge for their children. Therefore, they believe whatever their parents tell them. On the other hand, it also depends on their own perspective based on what they have experienced so that they can decide what is right or wrong, good or bad.

Ethics: Distinguishing between right or wrong -Kelvin M.

Though many believe the distinguishing of good or bad ultimately comes down to a ‘feeling’, I believe most of our morals and judgment is due to conditioning of thoughts and ideas by society and the respective time periods. The strongest aspect of society that affects moral judgment is the law, and the laws are always created by those with high authority. Before it was kings and emperors, now it is the public and parliament. For example, we right now believe killing and theft are wrong, and that idea rests deeply in all our minds. But if you think back to medieval ages: a knight may plunder a civilian’s house and take all their valuables as loot, yet no one would judge him as wrong, but rather praise his actions as claiming glory. Another example is William Golding’s famous novel: Lord of the Flies. The boys, stranded on the island, slowly present a regression from civilization to savage, yet during the final scene, Jack and all the other boys team up on hunting Ralph down without a ‘feeling’ of what they’re doing is ‘wrong’. This is what I believe: our moral judgment is based on society, in which an invisible peer pressure forms a somewhat unified standard that allows us to decide what is right and wrong.


To decide on a action whether it is good or bad we have to look on to the fact if this action related to live object or not. If it is related to non living object, action is neutral. Otherwise it can be bad or good, and to tell if it is a good or bad, we have to ask if the object (you doing action on) would have done the same to you. If he would have done the same, action is good. If not action is bad.



I think that to know when something is right or wrong it depends on who you are, on the family you have and how you were raised , on what you think and on making decisions on what is best for most people. each person has a different idea and there always have been fighting on what is good and bad but I believe there is no good answer. For example some people think a death penalty is bad but some other people think is good, I personally believe is good only if it is a justified penalty and if the person actually deserves the punishment. Another controversial topic is abortion, there has always been fighting about that but I personally am in favour of abortion because you make your own devotions for your body.

Some people might disagree with me and some support my opinion so that is a clear example  of how the good and bad depends on what you personally think, but most opinions are similar for all of us because that is what society and our families makes us think and are opinions that benefit all of us.

Personal Response on Ethics – Eloise

I know right from wrong because of what I was taught growing up. I learned from other people around me and other parents. Growing up I liked paying attention to everything going on around me, I was interested in the news and I would listen to my parents watching 60 minutes or 40/40 (crime shows). Seeing the the consequences for everyone else actions really encouraged me to stay away from doing those things or if nothing happened maybe drew me towards those. I also would pay attention to how my friends got in trouble with parents teachers and other friends and would stay clear of those behaviours. I don’t think you are born with good ethics or bad ethics, I think it is based off of your surroundings growing up and continuously.


Ethics is a branch off of philosophy that commonly refers back to the concepts of right and wrong principles. Ethics is the most commonly used area of knowledge because it relates into our everyday life the most. We learn the principles of ethics as children and carry them with us throughout our whole lives. For example, we commonly hear the phrase “if all your friends jumped off a cliff, would you jump too?”. If you use ethical thinking you would clearly say no because your own life is not worth risking even for a friend and we sometimes refer to ethical principles as common sense. In my life I use these principles quite a lot. For example, I have never broken the law. Even when there is an opportunity to do so, I always use the ethically correct choice. It can sometimes be difficult to define what is right and what is wrong. generally we have a pretty good understanding of social rights and wrongs. For example, if you cross the road while there is a lot of traffic, you will get hit. We can tell an action is ethically wrong because there will be a negative consequence attached to it, however sometimes we do things that we know are wrong even with the knowledge that there will be negative consequences. For example, as teens and adults we drink alcohol, smoke ad vape even though we know there are severe negative consequences that come with doing so.

how do you know that something is good or bad, right or wrong?

Good things are the thing have positive affect on something and bad things are the thing have negative affect on something. It means depends on the perspective.

For example, when the parents get mad at their children, they will get mad to teach what are the bad things to do so that children will not do the same thing again. Parents are teaching to their children to raise them into a good adults. Thus parents think getting mad is a good thing for children. However, that may hurt the children both physically and mentally, then it is a bad thing for children.

Isaac Salvador Personal response-Ethics

The decisions that we make are always the right and wrong ones and are both the good and bad. In my opinion, we make decisions based on what we feel like in the moment. For a person, one situation or decision will seem different at different times in their life. It could seem like a bad decision when they are younger, but when we are older, it might seem like the right choice. Now what we think and feel is not what we can consider what is “good” or “bad”, or one would think that. An individual, which led to a group of individuals decided what he, and then they foresaw as good and bad and so they convinced others of what they believed, then as a society we adopted those and made changes to what we see fit. It all started with that one persons opinions and about how he felt about a certain thing. What we nowadays consider what is bad and good is all just based upon how each thing makes the people in power feel. If there were a bunch of people who loved murder, maybe they would say that it is fine and that it is just natural survival or primitive nature and that its the survival of the fittest, and if that’s the way that we were shown was good, most people would go along with it and instead of thinking about it, just try and survive. You might think of that and say that that crazy, but to be honest, that’s not as strange as what we have today. Now, men and boys who would choose to not wear a shirt is seen as normal and that if you saw a man without his shirt on you would not think anything is wrong with that, but if you saw a woman without her shirt on, it would seem so weird and would be considered nudity and she could get arrested for exposure. To think that for the same species, what is seen as “right” and what is seen as “wrong” is completely different from gender to gender. Even when we are little kids and you could not tell the two boys and girls apart, it would still seem bad and looked down upon if a 13 year old girl was out in public shirtless and would seem so cute if the 13 year old boy did. You can see that what we decide as right and wrong is not based upon some scientific code or some divine law but all based on feelings and reactions to the situation. If one of the rules is seen to be made by feeling you can really start to see how the others are made. The road speeds are decided upon by what people feel like is safe, but as we know, different people feel and react differently to different situations and people also feel comfortable   driving at different speeds. As a society we have decided on what “bad” and “good” decisions are but they are not always what we feel is right.  All the decisions are made based off of feelings and moments and we can not classify something as a bad or not good because it changes for each person, at each moment, and each location we are in. For me, whatever decision that I make in that moment is the one that I feel like is the best decision for me and for others and follow what I believe in and what my brain and heart tell me. (I don’t know how to say that last part without sounding extremely cheesy but that what I am going to say)

How do we know what is right and what is wrong?

One way that we know what is right and what is wrong is that ever since we were young our parents have been teaching us these things. When we first do something that we shouldn’t have done our parents teach us that what we did was wrong and what the right thing to do would be. From this we quickly begin to gain more of an understanding of the different things that we shouldn’t do because we now know what is right and wrong. An example of how what or parents teach us helps us to learn what is right and wrong is that we have been taught that when we want something the wrong thing to do is to just take it. they have also taught us that the right thing to do is to ask for it. Overall I think the main reason that we now know what is right and wrong is from what our parents have been teaching us since we were little.

Ethics AOK

Usually, my gut reaction is what I might go by to tell me that something is right. It is like a light bubbly warm feeling in my stomach which makes me think about what is happening. I know that something is good (or bad) first by the rules that humans follow and secondly, by what has been successful in the past. For example, this past summer I was working as a sailing coach and noticed many things that I felt were right. One time a young sailor saw someone else struggling to set up their boat in the morning. Right away, she came quickly to help as best she could. I felt this was right because she did not have to help but she did anyway.

the difference between right and wrong

From a young age, we are taught by our parents about what is right and what is wrong. Even when we are young, we know the difference between right and wrong because we see what our parents do, though when we are very young we cannot express how we feel. If someone sees something that they think or feel is wrong, they will most likely step in and fix the problem. For example, if someone is being bullied it is right to stand up for them, even if it may not make you the most popular person in school. When I was in grade 8, I saw a kid being bullied by other kids in his grade, and I went and got him out of that situation and hung out with him for the rest of lunch. I think that people know what is right or wrong because we are all born with ethics, and when we see something wrong something in our gut tells us it is wrong and we should do something about it.

Plato’s Meno Part 2

In the second part of Plato’s “Meno”, Meno is confused on how one can learn something if they dont already know about it.

Socrates explains that we don’t learn, instead we simply recollect and are reminded of things learnt in a past life, “when I say there is no teaching but only recollection” (page 17)

This opens up a lot about belief, as Socrates clearly has a biased opinion on the topic since he is religious and believes in the afterlife. Even if his point does make sense in some aspects, it clearly has some altered belief due to religion.

We also see Socrates questions a boy on dimensions of a square, and as Meno observed, he saw that as Socrates asked more and more questions, the boy would get lost and not know the answer, but once more questions were asked, the boy began to understand and piece 2 and 2 together and got the correct answer.

This shows us we can piece together and formulate answers not by being taught something, but by simply piecing broken fragments together from questions to gain more understanding and obtain a solution.

The (un)reliability of scientific journals

This article is rather technical, but a quotation near the bottom sums it up nicely:

Journal editors have expended much time and effort in teasing out how to handle authors’ and reviewers’ competing interests. They need now to concentrate on their own and those of their employers, lest we reach the dismal scenario described by Marcia Angell: “it is simply no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research that is published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines. I take no pleasure in this conclusion, which I reached slowly and reluctantly over my two decades as an editor of The New England Journal of Medicine” [12].

Read the entire article here:

Thoreau on democracy

“After all, the practical reason why, when the power is once in the hands of the people, a majority are permitted, and for a long period continue, to rule is not because they are most likely to be in the right, nor because this seems fairest to the minority, but because they are physically the strongest. But a government in which the majority rule in all cases can not be based on justice, even as far as men understand it. Can there not be a government in which the majorities do not virtually decide right and wrong, but conscience?—in which majorities decide only those questions to which the rule of expediency is applicable? Must the citizen ever for a moment, or in the least degree, resign his conscience to the legislator? Why has every man a conscience then? I think that we should be men first, and subjects afterward. It is not desirable to cultivate a respect for the law, so much as for the right. The only obligation which I have a right to assume is to do at any time what I think right. It is truly enough said that a corporation has no conscience; but a corporation of conscientious men is a corporation with a conscience. Law never made men a whit more just; and, by means of their respect for it, even the well-disposed are daily made the agents of injustice. A common and natural result of an undue respect for the law is, that you may see a file of soldiers, colonel, captain, corporal, privates, powder-monkeys, and all, marching in admirable order over hill and dale to the wars, against their wills, ay, against their common sense and consciences, which makes it very steep marching indeed, and produces a palpitation of the heart. They have no doubt that it is a damnable business in which they are concerned; they are all peaceably inclined. Now, what are they? Men at all? or small movable forts and magazines, at the service of some unscrupulous man in power? Visit the Navy Yard, and behold a marine, such a man as an American government can make, or such as it can make a man with its black arts—a mere shadow and reminiscence of humanity, a man laid out alive and standing, and already, as one may say, buried under arms with funeral accompaniment, though it may be,

Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note,

As his corse to the rampart we hurried;

Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot

O’er the grave where our hero was buried.

The mass of men serve the state thus, not as men mainly, but as machines, with their bodies.”

—from Henry David Thoreau, “Civil Disobedience” (1849)

“All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten”

Does Robert Fulghum begin to make a case here for a universal ethical code?

All I really need to know about how to live and what to do and how to be I learned in kindergarten. Wisdom was not at the top of the graduate school mountain, but there in the sand pile at school.

These are the things I learned:

  • Share everything.
  • Play fair.
  • Don’t hit people.
  • Put things back where you found them.
  • Clean up your own mess.
  • Don’t take things that aren’t yours.
  • Say you’re sorry when you hurt somebody.
  • Wash your hands before you eat.
  • Flush.
  • Warm cookies and cold milk are good for you.
  • Live a balanced life – learn some and think some and draw and paint and sing and dance and play and work every day some.
  • Take a nap every afternoon.
  • When you go out in the world, watch out for traffic, hold hands and stick together.
  • Be aware of wonder. Remember the little seed in the Styrofoam cup: the roots go down and the plant goes up and nobody really knows how or why, but we are all like that.
  • Goldfish and hamsters and white mice and even the little seed in the Styrofoam cup – they all die. So do we.
  • And then remember the Dick-and-Jane books and the first word you learned – the biggest word of all – LOOK.

Everything you need to know is in there somewhere. The Golden Rule and love and basic sanitation. Ecology and politics and equality and sane living.

Take any one of those items and extrapolate it into sophisticated adult terms and apply it to your family life or your work or government or your world and it holds true and clear and firm. Think what a better world it would be if we all – the whole world – had cookies and milk at about 3 o’clock in the afternoon and then lay down with our blankies for a nap. Or if all governments had as a basic policy to always put things back where they found them and to clean up their own mess.

And it is still true, no matter how old you are, when you go out in the world, it is best to hold hands and stick together.

[Source: “ALL I REALLY NEED TO KNOW I LEARNED IN KINDERGARTEN” by Robert Fulghum.  See his web site at]

Year 13: Human Rights Question

Write a post in which you consider the following question:

Where do our ideas about human rights come from? Are they rooted in something universal to all people, like human nature or divine law? Or are they rooted in a particular culture, or a particular religion, or a certain group or class of society (e.g., white middle-class Westerners)?

As always, the more you dig into the question, the better. Don’t just skim the surface!