Category Archives: Business Management

Assumptions, data, and calculations

The Human Sciences gather information through various means, but almost all of them involve three factors: assumptions, data, and calculations.

Errors can occur in any of these.

  • Assumptions can be wrong.
  • Data can be wrong, or incomplete. It can also include too many variables, making it very difficult to reach any firm conclusions.
  • Calculations can be incorrect. Simple arithmetical errors are rare in the computer age, but the choice of a particular formula (another kind of assumption) may lead to misleading results.

At one extreme, people may simply accept reports about social science research without questioning them.

At another extreme, people who become aware of the possible problems with social science research may decide not to believe any of it.

The wise middle position is to view the results of social science research critically and skeptically, but not to reject social science altogether.

The same wise middle position applies to all the other AOKs as well.

Mercator’s model of the world, and what we can learn from it

This BBC program—”Gerard Mercator: The man who revolutionised mapmaking“—is highly relevant to an issue that arises in many of the “Human Sciences”: the use of models to depict reality. Mercator’s map is a wonderful tool for navigators traveling by ship, because the parallel lines of latitude allow for accurate calculations of the best way to sail from Point A to Point B.

However, as an image of the world it is highly distorted, and illustrates the prejudices of Europeans. Europe appears to be much larger than it actually is, and is placed right in the centre of the map. Africa appears much smaller than it actually is. China is way off toward the edge. Greenland appears enormous. And so on.

These distortions would not be important if there had been other maps, equally popular and widely used, that put Africa or China or South America, say, at the centre, instead of Europe. But in fact Mercator’s image still dominates the view of the world in the West and because of this dominance, it has become, in effect, a tool of European colonialism.

In this sense, the story of Mercator’s map illustrates how important models can be in determining our view of reality, and perhaps distorting our view of reality. Conclusion? Regard all models critically! Analyze their assumptions, their omissions, the point of view they promote, etc.

In economics, for example, “gross national product” (GNP) is widely used as a measure of the economy. But what is included, and what is excluded, in the GNP? Why? Such questions can lead to a much deeper understanding than we can have if we simply accept the models presented to us.

For a more detailed discussion of Mercator’s map, try this blog post, “Your World Map is Hiding Something,” on the excellent Metrocosm web site created by Max Galka, who teaches “data wrangling and data visualization” at the University of Pennsylvania.

Human Sciences Business Management


I think that the issue of false positives is something that occurs within business management . I think that this problem can mainly occur when a company is trying to advertise and or promote their products and they end up making there advertised products seem much better than the products they are actually making and selling. This is something that often occurs in food commercials and advertisements. They make the food seem so delicious that you think “I want to buy that” or “I want to go to that restaurant”. The problem with this is they spend a lot of time to make these advertisements with stuff that is sometimes not even edible and then when you get the food not is not as good as they made it sound or as what you were expecting.

I think that depending on the situation and the different parts of business management there are certain cases where it can be considered scientific and there are certain times where it is not scientific. I think that many of the different strategies in business are developed from research which makes me consider them to me more scientific. An example of this is different styles of leadership that someone may use when trying to manage a business, in class we have learned about how it has been shown that different leadership styles will have different effects on the people within the business. In these situations where the leadership styles are being tested on people and analyzed, I consider this to be a more scientific part of business management. An example of a part of business management that I don’t consider to be scientific is all of the more mathematical components. This includes balance sheets, finances, and income statements. Because these things involve different math skills and calculations I do not consider this to be a scientific part of the business. I also think that there are some areas of business management that can be more unclear or a mix of both scientific and non scientific parts. An example of this is when companies are trying to figure out the best ways to advertise and promote their products to make customers interested in buying them. This is scientific in they way that they will research and study different strategies that they could possibly use and the amounts of customers these can attract. The non scientific part of this is when they focus on how their advertising and promoting products effects the customers, example of this is when people see a cute dog in a commercial for something it gets their attention so they will hear about the products. The combination of these two parts is what can help the company to sell their products in the most effective way.

Human Science-Business management

As we know, the human sciences study the social, cultural and biological aspects of human existence. And business management shares many skills and areas of knowledge with humanities and social sciences, which includes decision-making, risk-taking, profit-making and operating in a competitive environment.

First of all, we can see that Brown realizes that the equation published by Fredrickson and Losada doesn’t contain any data and only works on its own terms in the article of “The British amateur who debunked the mathematics of happiness”, which means this whole theory is completely self-referential. The same applies to business management. Like all the ways expressed in the business cannot satisfy all the employees’ standard or needs. For example, some employee may like a leader with democratic leadership because they think this way involves subordinates in decision-making process, but others think that this style of leadership will make decision-making become so long, which is not good for working efficiency. So what we can see from this is that maybe a leader thinks that the democratic style of leadership that he or she adopts is useful for the employees and whole company, but not every employee thinks it’s feasible, which means the democratic leadership is not the greatest style because it is not for everyone. For minimizing such problem, as long as the employees adapt to the situation as much as possible, a leader also can try his best to combine a variety of different leadership styles, so as to meet the needs of each employee and make them work better.

For the second article False positive, fraud becomes the most important title. In the field of business management, this kind of negative behavior inside and outside the company is also very common. For example, a company can falsify its financial statements to show good financial results. These documents can be used as a basis for obtaining bank loans or selling shares to investors. Such fraud can be entirely internal to the accounting department or imposed by management. In order to minimize such problem, a strong system of internal controls helps companies deter employees from committing fraud. Like they can educate the management of fraud and initiate annual examinations of financial statements by an outside party.

In my opinion, as to whether business management is scientific or not, it should depend on different angles. In the business, there are many concepts and methods that are well defined and proven. Like we have confirmed the condition of some specified leadership style, which means this field is scientific. However, we can also say that business management is not scientific. The two words business and management can be viewed separately. When we pay attention to the details of management, we will find that in fact, in the whole business management, there is more of a form of communication between people. Everyone thinks differently, and that makes it impossible to have an absolute standard, so a lot of time it’s people’s subjective intentions and this kind of emotional communication that drives the management.

Human Science

Business Management is a study that learn how to start up the business and how to manage the company. We learn base on business functions which are marketing, finance, human resource, operation.

In my opinion, human resource will apply to the articles. When the managers think about human resource, they use the resources which have done and there are a lot of resources which tell how to have a efficient relationship in the company. For example, we learned that mass production will demotivate the employees due to the easy task and low salary. This is just a hypothesis and it does not mean that the workers for mass production does not a high motivation. Some worker might have a high motivation because the job make he or she confident  due to the easy task. Or the job is a job that she finally got and she might be so happy to have a job. I think emotion does not have an absolute answer and even though there are many resources, it does not mean it will apply to everyone because each person has different background and personality.

In addition, company could tell false positive. For example, company exaggerate on the advertising to impress the customers and made them to buy the products or use the services. When you see the advertisement for Mc.Donald’s, you will see a high quality hamburger with low price. However, when you actually buy the hamburger, the quality is not that high as you see on the advertisement. One more example is that company could only tell the positive things of their products or services. Common point of the example is that companies do something to attract the customers, but they do not lie.

Business management is not scientific. Because business and management is always connected to emotion, even though there are trend or tendency,  it will not have the exact same data or result for each resources. Also, it is hard to represent the resources by using number for business and management.

Human Sciences

Social sciences are described by the understanding of how people interact and function with one another. Business Management oversees the whole action of administering a group of people to reach maximum productivity, therefore making a corporation thrive. Forging facts in this specific area is very simple but also very easy to detect. Statistics for example. For example, certain CEO could say that his company is environmentally friendly. He could state that all the waste created in his factories is recycled. If for a specific reason someone would not believe this, this individual could ask workers in the company or look up information to make see if everything is being recycled. An example of a company that lied in its CSR (corporate social responsibility) is Coca-Cola. When they announced their new product, Coca-Cola Life, it was described as a much healthier option than the regular version of it. Many people conducted research and proved that it was even worse… The only way to reduce all of this fabrication of facts is by just trying to figure out each case going one by one. Each corporation should be investigated one by one in the search for these false statements. It is a slow process, but easy to detect forgery.

I believe that Business Management is a science in every way. There are a lot of ways that people have discovered and proved right in which you can make teamwork more efficient. A lot of research has been done about how to create a friendly working environment or how to create an efficient one. This is based on how humans interact with each other. For example, a dictatorial style is based on supremacy. A leader will command and the team will obey, this style is not particularly cheerful towards employees, but it has been seen to be the most efficient. On the other side, a democratic style is more likely to keep employees happy at the cost of slow decision making. Essentially, Business management is a study that includes people administration based on a goal.