All posts by Daniela

The Arts

When it comes to art, the first thing that comes to mind is that art is a form of expression of creative abilities, but after reading the brochures on “knowledge and the arts” and “taste for creators”, I became to the idea that knowledge in art is a way of understanding or having an opinion about a work of art in the connoisseur. Knowledge in art exists, through this knowledge, it can be implicit, particularly because, there is no right or wrong way to interpret a work of art, like everything you think is beautiful, for others it can be the opposite.

“Art is something we do, a verb. Art is an expression of our thoughts, emotions, intuitions, and desires, but it is even more personal than that: it’s about sharing the way we experience the world, which for many is an extension of personality.” (Philosophy Now)

The taste for the arts depends on the taste of the people, some people may refer to art as a piece of decoration or others simply do not like it. I consider that each person has their point of view and concept for art.

About the video of “The Girl from Ipanema”, which is a clear example of how research can lead us to its main concept to have a clearer idea of its originality. For some people without knowing the story behind it, they just said they didn’t like it or they didn’t enjoy it. but on the other hand, in the video of “The Girl from Ipanema”, a person asked and inquired more to understand in detail and in my opinion that helped that her opinion was different from others.


Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.                                                                                            —George Santayana

I have learned, that History help us to understand change and how the society we live in came to be. For me this quotation represents how I see the history. Through it, it allows us to think critically about our present situations to take decisions for our future. understanding history helps us avoid repeating the mistakes over and over again. That’s why for history is necessary to avoid repeating past mistakes, and that’s one reason of why do we learn history. While those who fail to learn from their mistakes of their predecessors are destinated to repeat them. Those who do not know history’s mistakes are doomed to repeat it.


People love to tell stories, all the time, when something is funny, scary or out of the ordinary happens. Most of the time contains a lesson through it, on occasions teaching us to love; others experienses, to forgive others, to be just and to strive for better than we have.

For me, being a storyteller it’s something very powerful, you have that power to influence others, through the stories, even teach and inspire, having the connection between people and their ideas, involving culture values, History and bring about change.

However, in Arya’s and Maul’s study (2012) provides the evidence that putting to be learned material in a story format improves learning outcomes, easier to remember. The experiment tested in  7th and 8th grade students in the U.S. on texts about the discoveries of Galileo OR the discoveries of Marie Curie. The texts were developed to be as similar as possible in terms of syntactic complexity, vocabulary, accuracy, and other measures. It showed how the narrative language helped them, with the final result of the students who listened the story in narrative version was remembered than the others who listened the expository version.

In my conclusion, storytelling includes all the way of knowledge, even if it’s from others perspectives, I’m agree with the point that narrative reasoning helps us to empathize with other people, become better citizens, increase our intelligence, and develop a coherent and healthy sense of personal identity. Ultimately, I think that those who are able to develop the capacity to reason narratively will be able to have a more comprehensive understanding of the human experience. Storytelling should be considered as a WOK.



Human Science

Human science is a study of the reality of being human, including social sciences. Geography studies the science of the earth´s surface, while geography as a human science refers to the study of its peoples and human behavior. However, human geography is focus on the behavior of people and how they relate to the physical world. Many areas of geography are interconnected each other, for example. Human CO2 emissions, like burning coal and other fossil fuels, but also cement production, deforestation and other landscape changes affects the climate that forms part of both physical and human geography because it gets an impact in humans. Geographic information supports much of what we do today on the Internet, where there are many people who manipulate information to benefit themselves, regardless of its outcome and without using data with a certain degree of credibility. For example, rivers are very important natural waterways that are also used for agriculture and livestock. Like floods, posting wrong information about flood data can cause many conflicts and inconsistencies. For example, saying that thanks to the flood, a lot of animals have been lost and the sale of food of animal origin has been reduced, without information to support that this information is correct. However, any article that is published without information verifying that information can result in a conflict.

In my opinion, human science considered geography as a science because it also studies human behavior with physical geography and how they interact with each other. We researched to find something we don’t know related to it, and I think it’s a scientific study because of that.




An emotion is an instinctive or intuitive feeling as distinguished form reasoning or knowledge (oxford dictionary). Where usually consists of various internal feelings and external forms, which are 6 basic emotions in common to all cultures (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust). In this chapter there are many proposed theories about what does emotions mean. One of them stated that emotions are a result of the experiences around us and not the other way around, where basically primary emotions have typical facial expression where we find the close connection between our emotions and bodies. For example is you are walking in the forest and you encounter a bear, you sense it using your five senses, process it, and as a reflex we start running. Because of this we feel scared. This theory stated that “we feel sorry because we cry, and angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble” (James W).

The theory also suggests that if you mimic the appropriate physical symptoms you can generate the corresponding emotion, this also suggests a mechanism through which we can come to know and empathise with other people feelings.

Emotions can be considered as knowledge divided by perception, reason and language. if this theory is true it would mean that emotions can be influenced by our brain/reason. There is a part of the chapter that includes intuion is usually seem as being more a matter of feeling than of thinking.

Therefore social intuitions, with this we tend to trust more into our intuitions about other people and we pride ourselves on being good judgments of character.


Are there universal moral values?

In my opinion, there are no moral values in this world, nothing is right or wrong. Therefore, no moral judgments are true. However, it depends on the group we are in, whether country, culture and religion. In conclusion, as human beings that we are, we must be able to establish universal moral values ​​based on the human rights of the country or religion to which we belong. Good and evil for a rational being will always exist.

Logic and reason.

At the beginning of the class I had no idea what exactly the logic meant. Or more exactly what is the difference between logic and reason. I was thinking about it all the class, but the I got it. Reason is more primitive animal instinct based on millions of years of evolution. Logic is the study of correct and incorrect reasoning.

And logic could be defined as the whole basis for science and rational thought. It is also found everywhere from computer algorithms to statistical analysis.

Part one: The search of a definition of virtue

In this part of the dialog opens with Meno asking socrates of seemingly straightforward question: Can virtue be taught?

Menos first definition: Virtue is relative to the sort of person in question. Menos second definition: Virtue is the ability to rule men. then the conclusion form  socrates was Everyone desires what they think is good. So if people differ in virtue, as they do, this must be because they differ in their ability to acquire the fine things they consider good.


Part 5: Meno and socrates finish the discussion. knowledge vs believe

Meno offers a fine illustration of socrates argumentative method and his search for definitions of moral concepts. Like platos early dialogues, it ends rather inconclusively. virtue and believe has been  defined. it has been identified with a kind of knowledge or wisdom, but exactly what this knowledge consist in hasn’t been seems its can be taught, at least in principle, thats why there are not teachers of virtue.

Part four: Why are there no teachers of virtue?

Meno is content to conclude that virtue can be taught, but socrates, to menos surprise, turns on his own argument and starts criticizing it. if virtue could be taught there would be teachers of virtue. but there aren’t any.

most the time in life, we get by perfectly well if simply have correct beliefs about something.  For example, if you want to grow tomatoes and you correctly believe that planting them on the south side of the garden will produce good crop, the if you do this you will get the outcome you’re aiming at. Another example that I learn the good men who fail to teach their sons virtue are like practical gardeners without theoretical knowledge.

Part three: Can virtue be taught?

In that part Meno ask socrates to return to their original question: can virtue be thought? Then just Socrates reluctantly agrees and constructs the following argument:

  • Virtue is something beneficial; Its a good thing to have
  • All good things are only if they are accompanied by knowledge or wisdom (for example I read about courage is good in a wise person, but in a fool is mere recklenessness
  • virtue is a kind of knowledge
  • therefore virtue can be taught


Part Two: socrates proof that some of our knowledge is innate.

meno declares himself confused. socrates says “I used to be told, before I knew you, that you were always doubting your self and making always daubt.

Menos description of how he feels gives us some idea of the effect socrates must have had on many people. the greek term for the situation he find himself in is “aporia”. he then presents socrates with a famous paradox.  Menos paradox: either we know something or we don’t. if we know it, we don’t need to enquire any further. but if we don’t know if we can’t enquire since we don’t know what were  looking for and won’t recognize it if we found it.