All posts by Alli

The Arts

One aspect of the arguments that was made in “Knowledge and the arts” and “Taste for Makers” which I found interesting was about asking the right questions about the work of Art. Then we begin examining our own responses to it: what it makes us think about, what it makes us feel (Knowledge and the Arts, P. 6) From the more we ask questions and continue to study a piece of art over time we can develop more of an interest in it and begin to understand it better. This can also have an effect on our opinion about the value of the art.

The video analysis of the song “The Girl From Ipanema” is one example of something that can relate to the idea of how studying a piece of art and asking questions about it can help us better understand how that piece of art makes us feel as well as it allows us to come up with a better judgement of the value of the piece of art. This is shown in how some people may feel that they personally do not enjoy the song “The Girl From Ipanema”. Because many of these people most likely have not asked questions about the song or studied the song in much detail, they are not able to fully understand the meaning so they could feel like they just don’t like the song and that there is not much value in the song. On the other hand the person in the video analysis about “The Girl From Ipanema”  had asked lots of questions and had studied the song in much more detail over a long time. I think that this had an effect on his opinion about the song and the value of the song because he was able to ask the right questions about the song and it ended up becoming something that he was interested in and a song that he enjoyed.

I think that this idea of how people are able to form opinions about a piece of art and how they are able to better understand the piece of art can relate to the topic of tase that is discussed in ” Taste for Makers”.  This essay mentions that “Saying that tase is just personal preference is a good way to prevent disputes. The trouble is, it’s not true”. I think that this quotation can connect to the idea of people forming better opinions about a piece of art when they ask the right questions because people can say that if someone likes a piece of art is just their personal opinion and that if they think that it is fine. in the same way it is mentioned in the quote it can also be considered that it is not true because without asking the right questions about a peice of art people can say that it has no value. But without asking questions and studying the piece of art when they say it has no value it is their own personal opinion but it may not exactly be true.


History as an AOK

I feel like history is an important part of the thing that we know today and they way we have learned them. A large part of what we know comes form history. We are able to learn and know a lot about the past through the stories about history. One of the main things that I thought about is how different people will all have different points of view on the same situations. Because of this everyone will tell stories from the point of view of what they experienced/ remember, this means that we may hear multiple stories about the same thing that are totally different which can make it very challenging for us to know what is true and what isn’t. I feel like history can be a very reliable source that can provide us with good information so that we can learn from mistakes in the past and not continue to repeat them.

Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it.

—George Santayana

In my opinion history is an important area of knowledge if we are trying to learn from mistakes that we have made in the past or if we are learning from thing we have done well in the past. On the other hand I feel that having history as an area of knowledge can also be misleading because we really have no way to be certain that the information we are giving is actually true. If we were never there to experience the event in history, how do we know what actually happened? Overall I feel like the different perspectives that stories from history are told from have an influence on how we understand different historic events. Because of this I think that History as an area of knowledge has more of an effect on what we believe that what we know.

Imagination plays too important a role in the writing of history, and what is imagination but the projection of the author’s personality.

—Pieter Geyl


I do think that storytelling should be considered a way of knowing. From reading the different articles I have learned that the stories that we tell and the stories that we are told are an important part of what we know.

“The stories we are told, the stories we believe, and the stories we tell—both to ourselves and to each other—shape our view of reality; our ideas of good and bad, right and wrong, normal and strange; our most basic beliefs about what is true, and what is false”

Storytelling is a way that we can pass down information and different life lessons between generations of people. Hearing these stories that have been passed down to us is one of the ways that we now know the things that we know.

Human Sciences Business Management


I think that the issue of false positives is something that occurs within business management . I think that this problem can mainly occur when a company is trying to advertise and or promote their products and they end up making there advertised products seem much better than the products they are actually making and selling. This is something that often occurs in food commercials and advertisements. They make the food seem so delicious that you think “I want to buy that” or “I want to go to that restaurant”. The problem with this is they spend a lot of time to make these advertisements with stuff that is sometimes not even edible and then when you get the food not is not as good as they made it sound or as what you were expecting.

I think that depending on the situation and the different parts of business management there are certain cases where it can be considered scientific and there are certain times where it is not scientific. I think that many of the different strategies in business are developed from research which makes me consider them to me more scientific. An example of this is different styles of leadership that someone may use when trying to manage a business, in class we have learned about how it has been shown that different leadership styles will have different effects on the people within the business. In these situations where the leadership styles are being tested on people and analyzed, I consider this to be a more scientific part of business management. An example of a part of business management that I don’t consider to be scientific is all of the more mathematical components. This includes balance sheets, finances, and income statements. Because these things involve different math skills and calculations I do not consider this to be a scientific part of the business. I also think that there are some areas of business management that can be more unclear or a mix of both scientific and non scientific parts. An example of this is when companies are trying to figure out the best ways to advertise and promote their products to make customers interested in buying them. This is scientific in they way that they will research and study different strategies that they could possibly use and the amounts of customers these can attract. The non scientific part of this is when they focus on how their advertising and promoting products effects the customers, example of this is when people see a cute dog in a commercial for something it gets their attention so they will hear about the products. The combination of these two parts is what can help the company to sell their products in the most effective way.


The first thing that I learned about emotions is what exactly emotions are. The usually consist of multiple different internal feelings and external behaviours. When our emotions are very strong or intense they are often described as “passionate” but when our emotions last for a longer period of time it is considered our mood. I also learned that our emotions can be effected by our beliefs and that our emotions have both physical and mental aspects. Another thing that I learned is about the James-Lange theory. This theory is that our emotional changes come from our bodily changes. It explains that when you get rid of the physical signs the corresponding emotion disappears. This also works with how the physical signs of an emotion can lead you to feeling and experiencing that emotion.

I have also learned that there is actually a close relationship between reason and emotion. Because emotion and reason are closely related and similar to each other it can be hard to see a clear distinction between them. They are closely related because most of the time you are having a mix of both thoughts and feelings inside your head. This relationship is also partially due to the fact that our emotions can be more or less rational depending on the situation we are in. An example of this is when we are afraid of something and we discover that it does not actually exist  that fear will most likely go away. There are also the cases where we experience irrational emotions when we react to different situations but it can sometimes be hard for us to control these emotions which I think causes us to question or doubt the things we know or think we know.



Universal Moral Value

I do not think that there are universal moral values because I don’t think there are any situations where everyone agrees about what is good and what is bad. I think that this is because of how everyone has different cultures and religions with different points of view on the things that are good and bad. One example is that if there was a person who killed many other people would it be ok to kill them or not. This example is one where I definitely think that there is no universal morals to this because everyone has their own opinions and beliefs.

Key Terms in Ethics

The theory that I like the best is Altruism. I like this theory the best because it is the act of helping someone or something without expecting anything in return. I feel  like I am happy when I am able to do something that will make others happy without feeling like I should be getting something for doing it. Whenever I make decisions I like to think about what will make others happy because I know that if I have made someone else happy I will be happy which is why Altruism is my favourite theory.

How do we know what is right and what is wrong?

One way that we know what is right and what is wrong is that ever since we were young our parents have been teaching us these things. When we first do something that we shouldn’t have done our parents teach us that what we did was wrong and what the right thing to do would be. From this we quickly begin to gain more of an understanding of the different things that we shouldn’t do because we now know what is right and wrong. An example of how what or parents teach us helps us to learn what is right and wrong is that we have been taught that when we want something the wrong thing to do is to just take it. they have also taught us that the right thing to do is to ask for it. Overall I think the main reason that we now know what is right and wrong is from what our parents have been teaching us since we were little.


One topic that we covered while learning about logic was reasoning. I found this topic in treating because before we started talking about this in class I did not know that there were more than 1 type of reasoning. The two types of reasoning that we talked about in our lessons about Logic were inductive and deductive reasoning.

Inductive reasoning is when you form a conclusion based on observations. When using inductive reasoning you form the conclusion that something must be true because something else that you observed was true. The problem with Inductive reasoning is that there is no proof to support the conclusions that you have formed. Although Inductive reasoning is not logically valid it is an important part of making discoveries in math.  Inductive reasoning can not show certainty but it is part of a discovery process where people are making observations and forming conclusions based on those observations that help to make new discoveries even if they are not proved.

Deductive reasoning is like the opposite of inductive reasoning. When using Deductive reasoning conclusions are formed when you know for certain that something is true it means that something else has to be true. Deductive reasoning is used if you are trying to prove with certainty that something. deductive reasoning is often used in mathematics. This can be helpful when you are needing to show that if one thing is true it would be impossible for something else to not be true as well.

Both Inductive and Deductive reasoning can be useful in different ways. They both relate to our lesson on logic because we learned that deductive reasoning is logical and Inductive is not.


Meno Part 5

I n part 5 Meno is continuing to try to get the answer to his question of wether or not virtue can be taught. multiple times through this part of the story. Meno thinks that he has found the answer to his question but when Socrates continues to question him he realizes that maybe that isn’t the right answer to the question he is asking.

Socrates: Well, can you name any other subject in which the professing teachers are not only refused recognition as teachers of others, but regarded as not even understanding it themselves, and indeed as inferior in the very quality of which they claim to be teachers; while those who are themselves recognized as men of worth and honour say at one time that it is teachable, and at another that it is not? When people are so confused about this or that matter, can you say they are teachers in any proper sense of the word?


In this passage I think that Socrates was asking meno if he thinks that if a teacher is confused by the subject that they are teaching and they do not understand it then can they actually be considered teachers.

From this Meno forms the conclusion that if people don’t understand virtue then it can not be taught therefore virtue c an not be taught.


Meno Part 3/4

The third part of Meno was shorter than all of the others. In my opinion part 3 of Meno was very similar to part 1 of Meno because in part 3 Meno is still asking Socrates about virtrue and comes to the conclusion that if virtue is a kind of knowledge then is must be able to be taught. To this socrates replies that  you have to be able to understand what virtue is before it can be taught.  This leads into their discussion on if virtue is good or bad and about how different things could be considered good or bad depending on the situation.

Socrates: Then as to the other things, wealth and the like, that we mentioned just now as being sometimes good and sometimes harmful- are not these also made profitable or harmful by the soul according as she uses and guides them rightly or wrongly: just as, in the case of the soul generally, we found that the guidance of wisdom makes profitable the properties of the soul, while that of folly makes them harmful?


In this quote from socrates I understood that certain things like wealth can be considered good or bad based on how they are used and what they are used for. Because of this I think that people can find that their ideas of what is good and what is bad can change over time.

Another topic that Meno and Socrates discussed in this section of the story was if people were good by nature or if they are taught to be good by someone else. I found that this was one of the topics that I found the most interesting in the story because it is something that I have never really considered before and I think that it is something that I think that different people would have different opinions on.

Socrates: So since it is not by nature that the good become good, is it by education?

p. 32

From this Meno comes to the conclusion that virtue is knowledge and it must be taught.

Meno Part 2

In part 2 of Meno there is a new character introduced who is called boy. In one part of this section Socrates is having a conversation with Boy about the size of a square figure. Then he talks to Meno about how he isn’t really teaching the boy anything:

Do you observe, Meno, that I am not teaching the boy anything, but merely asking him each time? And now he supposes that he knows about the line required to make a figure of eight square feet; or do you not think he does?



To this Meno replies that he thinks that the boy is just assuming based on the double size of the lines. I think that Socrates does this to show Meno how this relates to the questions that he had been asking Socrates before. The questions that Socrates asks the boy leads to the question for Meno and the Boy of how does he know the size of the square with out just assuming.

Plato’s Meno

In part one I think that Socrates is not giving Meno the full answers to his questions because he is trying to teach him and get him to learn about virtue for himself. When Socrates gives Meno an answer he also turns in into a question to make Meno think more about what he is really asking.

When I was reading this I had a hard time understanding what was happening with the conversations between them. I think that this was hard to understand because of how the dialogue was worded differently then the reading I am used to. One thing that I did understand from this is that different people will have different opinions and ideas of what virtue is to them. At the end of part one I understood that they were talking about why people do things that they know are bad.

In the very end of the first part Meno is still left with the same questions about virtue but he has also learned more about different views of what virtue is.