Reality, Independent of Us

Though Truman as an individual is legitimate, he does not live reality (as we accept it) until he escapes the set of his television program. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, reality is something that is neither derivative nor dependent, but exists necessarily. This is to say, reality is whether we acknowledge its existence or not. […]

The Validity of Truman’s Existance

In our past two class periods of TOK, we watched The Truman Show. The film follows the life of a man, adopted by a corporation, to be the star of a television show. He is unknowingly brought up in a fake town with actors playing the roles of his friends, family, and neighbors, while […]

The Social Creature

I think we live in a paradoxical society in which on the one hand, we have the tendency to conform to the majority, whilst on the other hand, we have progressed through the ages because of change, not conformity. I watched a video recently about a psychologist or neuroscientist of some sort doing a […]

Emotions and the Body.

The thing I found most curious in the presentations today was the idea that we think with our body. I am aware of the only half-joking idea that “men think with their penis”. I am aware of the idea of the heart vs the mind. However, I am aware that it all really exists […]

Importance of math

In last TOK class, we discussed about math. The discussion raised a question: if the mathematics is important to everyone in their life. I would say partly yes.

Mathematics originates from human’s ability of logical reasoning, math is a tool that is made to explain stuffs. This characteristic of mathematics is used for natural […]

Influence & Civilisation

Many influential people in history have used the same techniques shown in the documentary today. As long as the speaker “brings out” emotions within the crowd, he/she can influence them very easily. For example, not long after 9/11, George Bush made a speech that evoked anger against Iraq. This ultimately led to support for […]

How Can We Trust Science?

It is becoming apparent that the human condition is affecting even the most innovative and unbiased method of acquiring knowledge: The Scientific Method.

From everything to the origins of life and the universe to the fact that scientists refuse to get rid of the ever confusing concept of the conventional current in the field […]

The Universe & Beyond

– Which of the two theories do you think presents the best argument (Genesis or Multiverse), taking into account the fact that the beliefs of people have affected their ability to be unbiased in their research?

– Scientists not in favour of the Genesis theory are trying to disprove it, and likewise those in […]

Umbrellaology, Sciences and Truth

From the descriptions in the letter show that he does, to an extent, make use of the scientific method in his research, except that he does not have a set hypothesis. A hypothesis must be a prediction; you cannot say that I predict I will find the truth, since it would defeat the purpose […]

Values Matter More Than Truth

According to the article “The Science of Why We Don’t Believe in Science”, conservative people are less likely (than their liberal counterparts) to change their views on topics like Climate Change and Vaccine – Autism links. It states that this is due to the fact that people (especially conservative people) tend to agree with […]

Unconscious & Conscious Brain Processing

“Intuition is perception via the unconcious” – Carl Gustav Jung

I came across this quote while researching “intuition” online. Perhaps what Jung said may have some truth in it. When we speak of the brain and its processing, we refer to the unconcious/subconcious and concious brain. Since I despise talking about supernatural intuition and […]


“Anger is never without a reason, but seldom a good one” – Benjamin Franklin

This is espeically true in men. Anger tends to get in the way of getting things done. Often when people get angry (like mood swings), they do so with a reason. However, when we examine the reasons for this, we […]

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

I think this is quite a confusing topic. I can’t put my head around to which are inductive and which are deductive reasoning. I think this is the easiest way to explain it;

“In deductive reasoning, the person offering the argument takes it that the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion. If the premises are true, […]

The Problem of Induction

Induction seems to be a key part of our human nature.  If we did not rely on induction it seems that there would be no constants in our life – we simply need to in order to avoid insanity.  In actual fact, we can never fully rely on induction.  While we may have lived […]

Inductive and deductive reasoning.

I guess i don’t have much to talk about this topic. I think inductive and deductive reasoning are already valid. We can’t really prefer one reasoning to to the other reasoning because they are there for the other reasoning.

Deduction is concluding that something must be a true due to general principle. Where can […]

Inductive and Deductive reasoning

After reading the documents provided from TOK class on Friday, I came up with the definitions of inductive and deductive reasoning that make sense for me. Deductive reasoning seems to be reasoning in a logical way. Such as: A is part of B. C is part of A. So C is part of B. […]

Induction & Deduction

I was browsing youtube for videos about Inductive and Decuctive reasoning, and from the video with the clearest explanations…

Deductive Reasoning involves making a conclusion based on previously known facts.

We can see how this works in Science experiments. Our observations from the investigations that we do are our premises that back up our […]

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

We learnt today that inductive reasoning according to Sparknotes is defined as “The process of arriving at a conclusion based on a set of observations.” Whereas, deductive arguments are defined as “”one in which it is impossible for the premises to be true but the conclusion false.” (as defined by Firstly, I think […]

Good Reasoning and Good Arguments

On the worksheet, that we were given last class. There is a sentence that says, “An argument is VALID if the conclusions follw logically from the premises.” It’s very similar to what we learnt in psychology that if an experiment is valid then the conclusions show what the aim of the experiment is. In […]

Valid & Correct/Wrong Reasons

He that cannot reason is a fool. He that will not is a bigot. He that dare not is a slave. ~Andrew Carnegie

The statement by Andrew Carnegie might be criticising 3 types of people. Those that cannot reason, those that will not reason and those that dare not reason. It makes perfect sense […]

Altruism – Nurture Trumps Nature? Are You Sure?

Before I talked about the selfish gene. It is the selfish gene that allowed homo sapiens to keep away from extinction. Nevertheless, the selfish gene is something that every single organism has. What makes us humans so special, is that we can pretend to “hide” the effects it has on our phenotype simply by […]

Is belief or faith ever sufficient as a reason?

This TOK issue raised in today’s lesson actually reminded me of an interesting story: I forgot the title, but it was about a religious man who killed son of a woman. The woman was devastated in the beginning, but as the time passed she was determined to forgive the killer. However, when she went […]

The Selfish Gene: Evolution Through Natural Selection

The name Richard Dawkins sounded really familiar. I confirmed much later that he was the author of one of the books that I really liked: “The Selfish Gene”. The book talks about the controversial topics of evolution, and explains why all organisms, from a simple amoeba in the water to a complex multicellular human, […]

Brain In A VAT? Should I Care?

It is quite fun trying to figure out what it would be like being in a virtual reality, and what it would be like being in a virtual reality of that virtual reality. That way, we couldn’t tell if the “reality” we were in is actually the real “reality”. Though I was thinking about […]

Evolution of Languages; A Universal Language?

There is no doubt that every single language in the world has evolved, and will evolve in the future. We discussed this in class, but I would like to bring this up again in the blog because I did not mention this in class. (I thought it would be easier to understand this on […]

I Love iPhone, You Love Food, same as “I Love You”?

When Martin Lindstrom compared the concept of “I Love iPhone” to the concept of “I Love You”, I thought the comparison was a little lacking, as he had not taken into account the language we use everyday. Just to pick a few, he has not considered the fact that while people do say I […]

Thinking Literally: The Temperature Experiment

The idea involving the cold and the warm drink is controversial. Whether or not the warm cup or the cold cup brings out a more positive reaction is up to the receiver to decide. It could be that more of them preferred a warm drink to a cold drink. Or did the climate at […]

The Truman Show – My Ideas

1.    In what ways is Truman’s life fake? Explain Answer: In the viewer’s perspective, Truman’s life would look fake because he/she knows that Truman is living in an artificial reality. The whole town is artificial. Everyone knows what Truman is doing all the time. Truman’s actions are, in a way, controlled by the directors […]

27: If reason really was to work, why are so many people obese?

I know this sounds  offensive, but yes some people have serious problems with their weight. Through this issue I want to address and compare some of the ways of knowing.

First of all it is important to recognize, that all of the ways of knowing at some point and for some reasons probably interfere […]

Is art subjective? Oh my . . .

After skimming through the posts and comment that have appeared so far, all I can say is . . .


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#17 ToK Class

Well, we discussed about Oepidus this week. The topic drifted to our perception about fate or prophecies; how Oedipus was told by Apollo that he will kill his father and marry his mother.

One idea is that there is an all-mighty all-knowing powerful being which controls what happens, when it happens, and how it […]

#14 ToK Class

This week, we listened to Alexander’s, Jeffery’s, and Alvin’s presentations. It was Alvin’s and Jeffery’s presentation that was especially closely related to each other. Jeffery’s presentation was about whether or not cheating on a spouse was a human urge and Alvin’s presentation outlined his theory on how mankind is never truly satisfied with what […]

#11 ToK Class

Today, we had the first oral presentations from Nana and Cradle.

I found Nana’s presentation interesting in the way that she talked about “categorizing” males as suitable spouses. Its all very hard to explain, but I understand what she was getting at; the “categorizing” cannot be done either only rationally or intuitively/emotionally. The ‘guy’ […]

Journal 9: Emotion vs. Rational Thinking

Our topic lately in TOK has been emotion and intuition as a way of knowing. I like to think of myself as a relatively rational person but everyone has emotions whether we like to admit it or not.

However I don’t really agree with a lot of what the text book has to say […]

#9 ToK Class [continued]

An emotion, to me, is a very strange thing to define. This is, not only because it is hard, but because after having read ‘Theory of Knowledge’ by Nicholas Alchin, emotion seems to be the very thing that defines us and separates us from other individuals; makes us who we are, how we run […]

#8 ToK Class

This week, ToK class took a turn for the unexpected: videos.

Yes, we have moved on from the endless .pdf files.

Well, we watched three videos in class. To be more specific, they were all roughly 20 minutes in length and from a show called TED (Technology, Entertainment, and Design). The show features a […]

#7 ToK – October Break

Well, we all have a general idea about politics. If not, we all have some basic knowledge on the, what we could call, “art” of conveying one’s ideas or perspective through language. Now how does this work?

George Orwell wrote an article in 1946, explaining that Modern English, if written in a “bad way”, […]

#4 ToK Class

Yet another short, simple post.

Logic. Hmmm. Can be categorized in deductive and inductive. We spent some time discussing deductive logic and reasoning.


As Socrates puts it:

1. Virtue is good. 2. All that is good is a part of knowledge. 3. Therefore, virtue is a part of knowledge.

From earlier discussions: and […]

22/23 October

On Thursday we looked at an IBO document concerning ‘knowledge issues’ and an article by Stanley Fish concerning two recent books on the existence of God and possible explanations of evil and suffering. Friday will be spent working on oral presentations.

Comments will be open until next Wednesday. In your comments, try to focus […]

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