Terminology Project 1

For the Terminology project my group was tasked with explaining valid conclusion, true conclusion, and proof. I found that valid conclusion can be found through the use of deductive reasoning to reach a conclusion. Deductive reasoning is found through the use of two or more statements known as premises. If the premises are all […]

Fallacy analysis: Poisoning the Well

Fallacy is an argument that uses poor reasoning. An argument can be fallacious whether or not its conclusion is true.

I see or experience lots of fallacies everyday. As an example, I saw a fallacy during PE class. My friends and I were getting changed after playing football and during that short time Patrick […]

Why do we cling to beliefs when they’re threatened by facts?

Interesting article at arstechnica.com has relevance to TOK:


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Evidence in Logic

What is Logic? : The study of the methods and principles used to distinguish good or correct (valid) reasoning from bad or incorrect (invalid) reasoning.

A Valid Argument is one that follows the laws of logic; it is properly reasoned.

What is reasoning? : Consciously making sense of things, applying logic, for […]

Reasoning about Ethics- Abortion

As a woman who becomes pregnant and does not wish to bear a child,I would choose abortion as:

From 1. The utilitarian approach,

I would choose abortion as I cannot promise the well being of him/her when initially, I do not want him/her in my life. Rather than mistreating and ignoring the child, abortion benefits mainly […]

Logical Fallacy

We make a number of errors and mistakes when we make a decision, because we are not a perfect being. Logical fallacy is included in the ‘errors and mistakes’ as well. In our real-life situations, ‘hasty generalization’ is the most common logical fallacy we face. Our perception is so limitative and because of that […]

Logical Fallacy (Slothful Induction)

A person insists on exercising outside in an area which has a high pollution levels. This person has also read studies proving that the combination of exercise and air pollution increase the risk of dying of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. To reduce the risks of potential health risks they could exercise in an area […]

Logical Fallacy

Humans are able to think and express their opinion by using language and being reasonable. However, somewhat reasons we have, we do not always think or be reasonable, which is called logical fallacy. There are many types of logical fallacy, but I will talk about hasty generalization. Hasty generalization is the size of the […]

Logical Fallacies

Currently, in English class, we are looking at advertisements and advertising techniques. We looked at some advertisements that claimed to have “The best-selling product on the market.” This implies to audiences that because more people buy it, it must be better than other products and therefore the best product. However, this is a perfect […]

Logical Fallacy

Although humans have ability to think rationally and reasonably, they do not always think logically for different reasons. This phenomenon is called the logical fallacy. Logical fallacy also includes a type called hasty generalization which is categorized as inductive fallacy. For instance, there is an internet cartoon called web-toon. Each series is updated on […]

Thoreau on democracy

“After all, the practical reason why, when the power is once in the hands of the people, a majority are permitted, and for a long period continue, to rule is not because they are most likely to be in the right, nor because this seems fairest to the minority, but because they are physically […]

To What Extent Do You Trust An Authority Figure?

Do you trust authority? Do you feel like most of the authority figures are tending to tell truth to the public? If you do truth the authority figure, to what extent do you trust them? In my own opinion, I believe that the authorities are constantly lying to the public, and I’m sure that […]

Reasoning about ethics

1.The utilitarian approach– legal

(If I don’t want this baby, I will be happier to be single. Also, the government and society don’t have to waste money to deliver this baby and raise her/him.)


2.The fairness, justice, or rights approach – legal

(I have the rights to decide whether I want this child […]

Math, it’s always been there

Look at nature and all the species that reign in it, and you will see that math is all around you.  Its been around since before our grandparents, since before Jesus, before the Romans, the Greeks, before we even knew what the answer to two plus two.  It has always been there, humans have […]

“The Nightmare of the West Memphis Three”


From the New York Review of Books, a real-life situation filled with TOK issues and juicy quotations.

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“Something stronger than reason”

Pierre smiled, Natasha began to laugh, but Nicholas knitted his brows still more and began proving to Pierre that there was no prospect of any great change and that all the danger he spoke of existed only in his imagination. Pierre maintained the contrary, and as his mental faculties were greater and […]

I own three umbrellas. Who cares?

Dear Sir:

I apologize for my bluntness, but please, get a life.  You say you search for truth but what truths have you really found?  When performing scientific experiments you should be thinking of how your research will benefit the scientific community and society, as a whole.  You should not however be wasting 18 […]

Logical Fallacy

A logical fallacy is basically an error in reasoning. One example of logical fallacy is ‘argumentum ad hominem’ which means attacking the person. It means that the argument is made against the opponent instead of against the opponent’s argument.

For example, A says that watching TV is bad, then B say that you always […]


We are discussing reasoning recently as one of the ways of knowing. I learned that there are two ways of reasoning, inductive and deductive. I found this very interesting because I can immediately relate to all of my lessons in school.

For example, some of the theories we learned in biology are inductive, because […]

Just a little assumptuous story(yes I made that word up)

A boy sat writing his essay. Flying monkeys entered his room. The essay was grabbed by a monkey.  The boy sat in awe while his mother came into the room shouting.  The window was then closed and the boy went to bed.

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Genetic Logical Fallacy

The genetic logical fallacy is judging something good or bad on the basis of where it comes from, or from whom it comes.

You can judge people on the basis of where they come from, and that is a failure in reasoning. As people say, don’t judge a book by its cover.  I have […]

Reasoning, truth tables, premises…

So, in TOK we have been looking at ways in which you can reason things, the way of reasoning. In summary, you need two premises to make a conclusion, and that becomes a valid argument but isn’t necessarily true. Something I found interesting was that there is a cycle:

general rules –> (deductive reasoning) –> specific […]

Genetic fallacy

In last TOK class, we had a sheet of different fallacies in our life. It is quite funny that these fallacies are commonly used not only by politicians and ad, but also by our parents or ourselves.

Fallacy=wrong reasoning, it might be an appropriate formula to define ‘Fallacy’. People use invalid reasons to support […]

Hasty generalization

In last T.O.K class, we discussed about the topic ‘fallacy’. And i felt very sympathy when we told about logical fallacy because there are many logical fallacy when people communicate each other. among the types of logical fallacy, the interesting part is ‘hasty generalization’. It occurs when people judge rashly. For example, we heard […]


In T.O.K class, we discussed about reasoning. During discussing, the interesting point is difference of everyone’s reasons.  and the reason of this difference is because of  we have different ways to thinking like emotion and perception. when we decide something, we often do reasoning because it help us think more big. For example, if someone […]

Logical fallacy

On November 21st, 2012, we looked through different types of logical fallacy. The term logical fallacy is an error in reasoning. Fallacious reasoning keeps us from knowing the truth, which makes us unable to manipulate in the art of rhetoric.

We often speak a lot of logical fallacies in our conversations. For example, a […]

Slothful Induction

This is essentially disagreeing though the evidence is obvious and is contrary to what you’re saying. I think this is a quite common fallacy that we see a lot in everyday life. The thing is that humans have quite a lot of pride in the themselves and it doesn’t come very easy to some […]

Logical Fallacy

For the last TOK class, we looked through many types of logical fallacy such as black or white theory, gambler fallacy and straw man, etc.  There are lots of logical fallacies that I had never recognized before the lesson. Actually, there are some logical fallacies which I often use in my conversations with others. […]

Logical Fallacy

There are many logical fallacies that people make when they communicate. From those, I am going to explain about the logical fallacy called “appeal to emotion”. This logical fallacy is usually used for manipulating by an emotion, not by valid argument.

For example, if a student says to a teacher that, “Please give me […]

Logical Fallacies

Last Wednesday, we learnt about logical fallacies in TOK class. There are 24 logical fallacies such as slippery slope, false cause and ad hominem. The most interesting one is ‘the gambler’s fallacy’. The gambler’s fallacy is when an individual believes that the onset of a certain random event is less likely to happen following […]


In TOK class, we talked about reasoning which is one of the ways of knowing. Until now, we learnt about perceptions and languages. But I think ‘reasoning’ is the most interesting one. There are statements and conclusion and we need to find out that the statements and conclusion are valid or invalid and true […]


last week, we talked about reasoning, it was quite interesting because we had to figure out it is right or not. slippery slope was very interesting because a lot of people always make this mistake. for example, parent always think that computer game will make children hard to study and that will cause students […]


Few lessons ago, we learnt new way of knowing, reasoning. It was very different from language and perception. Reasoning is like a puzzle. We need to think logically to get the answer. It was very interesting and exciting to learn about reasoning even though it made my brain hurt.

Overall, I think reasoning is […]


During our last TOK class we discussed about ways of reasoning things. Everyone reasons everything differently, due to our different ways of thinking which are emotion and perception. For the same situation people reason it differently and have different opinions on it due to different perspective of things. For example: some people reason things, tend to […]


On Wednesday we talked about different types of logical fallacies and we were suppose to give one example, where we discuss what type of logical fallacy is occurring. On the sheet with the 17 different examples, I chose number 8. ‘Air bags in cars do not really increase safety, and besides, most cars with […]


Few weeks ago, we changed our focus in to reasoning. I think reasoning is quite different from other three ways of knowing which are perception, language and emotion(we didn’t cover it yet). Simply, reasoning is more difficult than the three actually and more complicated. Some how, it is like puzzle or quiz. This made […]


The definition of reasoning is the process by which you reach a conclusion after thinking all the facts. A syllogism a three-step argument derived from two premises and a conclusion. Using this theory, a valid argument has to be made before you have to decide your ‘true’ conclusion.

What is truth then? Truth is […]


What is reasoning? I think it is a very hard question to answer.

Think in this way, what are our reasons based on? Is it DEDUCTIVE or INDUCTIVE?

Sometimes, we get out the rule from specific situation (inductive). On the class, the teacher gave an example about black and white swans. Before, people just […]


Recently we took our first step into the field of reasoning in TOK classes. There are two types: deductive and inductive. Deductive reasoning is when we apply general rules onto specific situations. (e.g. pythagoras theory) Inductive reasoning is when we exploit specific situations to work out general rules. (e.g. white and black swans).

I […]

Benjamin Franklin on the value of Reason

Benjamin Franklin—printer, entrepreneur, scientist, inventor, community organizer, revolutionary, diplomat, celebrity—wrote one of the earliest autobiographies. In it he tells a story from his youth that neatly illustrates the value of reason in our lives.

I believe I have omitted mentioning that, in my first voyage from Boston, being becalm’d off Block Island, our people […]

What is being communicated in the silent movie?

Change in religion and the world around us.

As we watched the movie which immediately was revealed to be some sort of religious nature movie based on all the monks and nature that was shown straight away as well as the music being played in the background which had a very ‘holy’ feel to it and we could […]

Vat with a brain in it

If martians truly did fly down to Earth just last night, drug me and remove my brain, and then fly it back to Mars to plug into a virtual reality machine, then I am not in reality, typing up this blog post.  But how does one know if this happened or not?

The answer […]

Why emotion trumps reason

From the NY Times, “Inside the Mind of Worry”.

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Are we in fact a brain in a vat?

There is always an ‘if’. Each situation is in parallel limited universe. The world we perceive is set up of sciences and theories. The fact that our brain in a vat does not give a scientific basis to today’s world. In the field of psychology, we find compelling examples that support this thesis.



how has today’s society structured our world to create a dominance for sight and hearing

In now day, everything had changed in our society, people can use their eyes and ears to see and hear more informations from morden machines like computer, TV, radios etc.  we need sight to help us understand the informations that we read form books or Internet, we need hearing  to listen other people talking, […]

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