He that cannot reason is a fool.
He that will not is a bigot.
He that dare not is a slave.
The statement by Andrew Carnegie might be criticising 3 types of people. Those that cannot reason, those that will not reason and those that dare not reason. It makes perfect sense after some thinking
The validity of reasons for an argument can be determined, but whether the reason is correct or wrong for certain, depends on the individual. As I have said before, if we look at 2 extremes in the political side of things, during the Cold War period, there were 2 main idealogies. There was the socialist Soviet Union, which wanted to achieve equality for everyone, and then there was the capitalist free world (Allied Nations), which ran on capitalism and trade. The reasons given by both sides on why both ways of running the world are all valid. However, depending on who you were, your judgement of whether the reason is correct or wrong changes. If you were a socialist, the reasons for a socialist world are correct, and those of a capitalist society wrong. Likewise if you were a capitalist, reasons for a capitalist world would sound correct, and those of a socialist society wrong.
In short, the validity of a reason can be determined, but whether the reason is correct or wrong depends on the individual.
To give an example, during the end of the World War II, the allied forces were already winning the war, but they chose to drop little boy and fat man nuclear bombs on Japan. Their reasons for doing so may seem vaid to the allied forces (end the war swiftly and with minimal casualties), but is it right to drop an atomic bomb on top of a population of civilians? In the Allied’s point of view, yes, but if you were part of the population that was about to have an atom bomb dropped from above your head, you’re going to think otherwise.
Another example: Iran and North Korea have the capability to arm themselves with nuclear weapons. The reason being: nuclear weapons are the ultimate military deterrent to prevent the opposition, however strong they are, from attacking one’s country and violating its sovereign rights. On the other hand, America and its close allies think that by allowing those 2 countries to be nuclear powers we are endangering the peace, security, and stability of our world. Both reasons are valid. But Iran and NK will say that their construction of nuclear weapons is for protection and is therefore justified. America and its close allies will think their reason is not correct.
So… It all comes down to who you are, where you are, what you’ve experienced when you judge whether a reason is correct or wrong. What we can do for sure, is validate the reason.