Is maths an invention or a discovery?

I’m not really sure whether it is an invention or a discovery. I believe that perhaps there were things that didn’t make sense and when you look at it in a mathematical way everything starts to come together and it provides answers that were unknown. Without humans though would maths still be there? If [...]

The Invention of Mathematics

Contrary to the viewpoints of many of my peers, I believe mathematics is invented rather than discovered. The cause of this confusion is  a matter of definition. Maths can be described as a universal code that dictates omnipotently (Platonistic maths). It can also describe the way we try to define our universe and its [...]

Restriction- Good or Bad?

Recently in ToK we have been reading articles based on countries like China and Japan censoring their past and even modern issues from their citizens. Although I do think people should be able to explore the internet freely etc and I think that people have the right to know what kind of country they [...]

The Nacirema

This satirical anthropology essay highlights the effect of bias on research in the human sciences. By using words that portray a primitive society the author creates a crude picture in our mind of this “foreign” culture. Upon rereading the essay we realize that the Nacirema reflect our own modern society. Through the authors use [...]


Today in TOK class, we just moved on to slightly different subject which is Anthropology. This study is about mankind or human society. I got a paper and this was talking about a weird society with shrine, holy mouth men and listener. It was so interesting but weird and the society looks like lack [...]

Why science subject is necessary for IB diploma?

For IB diploma, students must take one of the subject in science section. It can be hard science subjects like physics, chemistry, biology or fusion science like computer science and  design technology. I think the biggest reason is that science is helpful for student to think more logically or rationally like mathematics. Student might [...]

Science is Required

The IB is meant to prepare students for the depth, rigor, and range of classes in university. In the american school system the first year or two of university, include a broad range of courses that all incoming students must take. Several of these classes are hard sciences. In this context, yes, science must [...]

Should an IB student take science?

I think an IB student should not take science as every student has their strengths on a particular thing. Forcing students to learn science do not help them but instead demotivate their mood on both study and achieving higher grades. For instance, in foreign counties, a student may have jump grades for his or [...]

Should all IB students take a science?

I believe that if a student wants to continue in the future with a science as a job then they should, however it should not be necessary. Sciences are to broaden your mind on the way you look at little thing and big things, it’s to give you an idea of how the world [...]

Should all IB students have to take science?

I don’t think students should have to take science as a requirement of IB diploma as universities (in Britain anyway) unless you are wanting to do a degree in science they do not ask for science as a requirement, much like they do not ask for a high level of maths. The only subject [...]

“Queerer than we can suppose: the strangeness of science”

Steve Grand invites the reader to imagine a childhood experience, “something you remember clearly, something you can see, feel, maybe even smell, as if you were really there. After all, you really were there at the time- weren’t you? How else would you remember it? But here is the bombshell: you weren’t there! Not [...]

How languages shape the way you think

I have never really think hard and take the languages very seriously, but after hearing the radio program in the last Tok class, it change my perspective about language on whole new level. The radio we listened in our last TOK class mentioned that when we’re talking, we don’t realize that we are actually [...]

Political Aid – ” YES WE CAN ” by Barrack Obama in 2008

This is the link to barack obama’s campaign aid in 2008 with title ” Yes We can”.

In this video, Barack Obama emphasis the feeling of unity and deliver clear message to everyone that together with him, America can be strong and better place to live for everyone. The entire lyrics in the [...]

Is Umbrellaology a science ?

In the letter, the author claimed that the umbrellaology is a science. In my point of view, I strongly believe that this claim is true. First of all, for something to be considered as a science, it should have legitimate hypothesis, theory, and explanation. It also need to be investigated and experimented by following [...]

The strangeness of science

In February 1st, we look at Richard Dawkins’s talk about the world is queerer than we can suppose. Although the talk use high level of English which many I cannot get, but it interested because explain once we find out what knowledge, there is more to find out. For example, Richard Feynman, an eminent [...]

The strangeness of science

Last Friday, we watched a video of a short lecture by Richard Dawkins. It was quite fast and  talking about tricky ideas, so I could not understand the whole story. However, one idea sticked into my head and make me think about it again and again. It is about “Middle World” or “Middle Earth”. [...]


I think that in some ways it umbrellaology could be consider a science as it does have the information and a certain amount of hard work and belief put into it however, it’s safe to say I don’t personally think it scientifically provides anyone any extra knowledge that was already not known. The argument [...]

Yea it’s useless, but its a Science

According to the information in this article, I believe Umbrellaology to be a science. His laws and theories are based solely off data collected in a scientific manner. As he collected data he created and refined hypotheses to achieve a better understanding of his field. He continues to test his hypotheses and is spreading [...]


I personally think umbrellalogy is a science. The study of umbrella may be rare to do but it follows the scientific research by having an observation, hypothesis, prediction and testing. I think it is like case study in psychology, which people analysis on the work, he or she had done. If in psychology we [...]


As author mentioned through the letter, he(maybe she) has numerous research results and hard facts as 9 volumes of books. Despite his huge amount of investigation, I disagree with the author’s argument. Firstly, he said that he ascertained information of 1)how many umbrellas people have, 2)size, 3) weight, 4)color of them. They are just [...]


I personally believe that Umbrellaology is a pseudo-science which is a “fake” science. I believe that the information given is too general and vague. The author has not considered the difficulty of getting every persons information about their umbrellas, people may have moved, not been home, thrown away their umbrellas and may not know [...]

What kind of knowledge do we gain through scientific experiments?

A scientific experiment provides information that is believed to be reliable and factual. It allows ones to observe the result after the experiment, which allow conclusions to be made. Although conclusions can be altered depending on people in different fields of work, knowledge will eventually be gained if these different fields’ people make the [...]

Knowledge gained through scientific experiments

In the world, there are lots of knowledge that we can gain through scientific experiments. Since I am taking physics as my science subject, my scientific experiment is about electricity which is electric circuit. Through the electric circuit experiment, we can gain knowledge about features of series circuit and parallel circuit. The main points [...]

Knowing a science experiment is reliable

Everyone should know that they have a blind spot because of the blind spot test where you would take a square piece of paper, and then put a dot and a cross beside it which would be about 4cm apart. you then put something( hand or cloth) over one eye and place the paper [...]

Political Ad and Wok

“Next Century” was an advertisement for Clinton in the year 1996. The advertisement use effects of different ways of knowing to show the leadership to the public. Every slide show of the movie was as meaningful such as it may influence the public.

The American flag appeared a lot of time as a reason [...]

We Will Bury You

This advertisement supporting Barry Goldwater relies intensively on emotion and perception as “ways of knowing”. Feeding off of America’s fear of communism, the tv spot depicts Khrushchev delivering a violent speech to the Russian people in which he exclaims “We will bury you!” and demands that the children of Russia remain good communists. In [...]

Daily Mail Vs Max Clifford

I recently read an article by Amanda Platell who writes for the Daily Mail as she discussed Max Clifford as he has recently been arrested and interrogated as he is under scrutiny for supposed sexual offences. Platell is very hostile towards Clifford and has no regard for the saying “Innocent until proven guilty” as [...]

Political ad and wok- “Revolving door” (Bush, 1988)

“Revolving door” was the advertisement against Dukakis, It showed the Furlough which was the law that Dukakis brought to Massachusetts. Furlough stated that any murderer, rapist or kidnapper would be able to leave un-paid and would come back after a limited time. Dukakis made a mistake and let out these convicts into the daily [...]

Political Ad and WoK

Michelle Zheng and I watched a political advertisement of Clinton in 1996 named ‘Surgeon’. This mainly talks about the education that Clinton will cut the tax for tuition, provide scholarship and make most college for free.

This Ad put the children who is talking about their dream in the future in the front to [...]

Political Add and WoK- Peace Little Girl (Johnson, 1964)

This add was to support votes of Johnson against Goldwater. The add featured a little girl contrasted with a nuclear explosion. It successfully played into the viewers emotions and the other WoK like reason were coupled together with emotion. With Johnson using emotion to conflict the voters decision he managed to create [...]

Emotion in-group 3

In recent decades, psychologists have studied plenty of empirical researches in certain circumstances of change in emotion to human behaviour and body. Why is emotion important? This is because it can determine a person’s characteristics, which can affect the result of empirical research. For example, Schachter and Singer made a research in 1962 about [...]

The role of emotional response, imaginative engagement and empathy in treating the literature.

Before I answer the question of “What is the role of emotional response, imaginative engagement, and empathy in treating the literature of your English class?”, I just want to have a definition of emotion. During the last TOK class, my group discussed about the definition of the emotion, and we got it as the [...]

Emotion in our life (group 6)

In last TOK class, we talked about emotion as a way of knowing. From my point of view, all subjects in a group 6 (art, music, theather, film, music, dance) related to emotion. Any people can express their feelings, mood through these items.

So, i think emotion plays important role in our life, [...]

Hasty generalization

In last T.O.K class, we discussed about the topic ‘fallacy’. And i felt very sympathy when we told about logical fallacy because there are many logical fallacy when people communicate each other. among the types of logical fallacy, the interesting part is ‘hasty generalization’. It occurs when people judge rashly. For example, we heard [...]


In T.O.K class, we discussed about reasoning. During discussing, the interesting point is difference of everyone’s reasons.  and the reason of this difference is because of  we have different ways to thinking like emotion and perception. when we decide something, we often do reasoning because it help us think more big. For example, if someone [...]

Logical fallacy

On November 21st, 2012, we looked through different types of logical fallacy. The term logical fallacy is an error in reasoning. Fallacious reasoning keeps us from knowing the truth, which makes us unable to manipulate in the art of rhetoric.

We often speak a lot of logical fallacies in our conversations. For example, a [...]

Logical Fallacy

For the last TOK class, we looked through many types of logical fallacy such as black or white theory, gambler fallacy and straw man, etc.  There are lots of logical fallacies that I had never recognized before the lesson. Actually, there are some logical fallacies which I often use in my conversations with others. [...]


Few weeks ago, we changed our focus in to reasoning. I think reasoning is quite different from other three ways of knowing which are perception, language and emotion(we didn’t cover it yet). Simply, reasoning is more difficult than the three actually and more complicated. Some how, it is like puzzle or quiz. This made [...]


The definition of reasoning is the process by which you reach a conclusion after thinking all the facts. A syllogism a three-step argument derived from two premises and a conclusion. Using this theory, a valid argument has to be made before you have to decide your ‘true’ conclusion.

What is truth then? Truth is [...]

TOK Discussion

Last wednesday in TOK class we discussed the silent movie that we watched earlier. We talked about what scenes that were most memorable and why they were. I had said that we may remember the things that were scary to us or that we could relate to. We talked about religion and how different [...]

Discussion in class

Today, all students in TOK class, split up into 4-5groups and had a discussion. In my group, Sabrina wasn’t in school for a while, so we decided to share ideas about the silent movie, Baraka. Michelle Zheng, Michelle Chang, Sabrina, Chloe and I focused all different topics from the movie. First, I was so [...]


Language is being communicated in our daily life, we use our sense of hear to perceive and to understand the language speak by people.

In the article ‘Eight Questions’, I actually don’t agree with the writer, which she said that Chinese people speak rudely. China is country that is divided in many provinces, and [...]

Does people’s Language shape how they think?

After I read the article, which is titled as “Does Your Language Shape How You Think?”, I got a very interesting idea. The idea is that people can think differently on objects by using languages; have genders according to the objects. I have never thought about it before because my mother language which is [...]

Language and Culture

The article presented to us last class period focuses on the ability of language to shape how we think. Before we question whether language does this, we must ask why language has developed in a way to change our perception. Language is a tool and, like any tool, is improved and adjusted to best [...]

Silent Film

All the men worship together which highlights that it’s part of their everyday life and culture. Everything is over-exaggerated and everyone is carried away with it all. This emphasises their huge faith and dedication to religious beliefs. At the beginning you do not see the woman’s faces and then they are slowly introduced, showing [...]

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